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To visualize the Hebrew language, written from right to left, it is necessary to have Hebrew font in your pc (bwhebb, see Homepage).

 

 

(From “The Hebraic Tongue Restored”)

RADICAL VOCABULARY

PREFATORY NOTE



After all that I have said in my Grammar, both concerning the force of the sign and the manner in which it gives rise to the root, there remains but little to be added. The strongest argument that I can give in favour of the truths that I have announced upon this subject, is undoubtedly the Vocabulary which now follows. I venture to say that the attentive and wisely impartial reader will see with an astonishment mingled with pleasure, some four or five hundred primitive roots, all monosyllables resulting easily from the twenty-two signs, by twos, according to their vocal or consonantal nature, developing all universal and productive ideas and presenting a means of composition as simple as inexhaustible. For as I have already said, and as I shall often prove in my notes, there exists not a single word of more than one syllable, which is not a compound derived from a primitive root, either by the amalgamation of a mother vowel, the adjunction of one or several signs, the union of the roots themselves, the fusion of one in the other, or their contraction.

This great simplicity in the principles, this uniformity and this surety in the course, this prodigious richness of invention in the developments, had caused the ancient sages of Greece, those capable of understanding and appreciating the remains of the sacred dialect of Egypt, to think that this dialect had been the work of the themselves who had fashioned it for their own use; not priests perceiving, from the irregular turn pursued by the Greek idiom and even the vulgar idiom then in use in Lower Egypt, that any tongue whatsoever, given its own full sway, might attain to this degree of perfection. Their error was to a certain point excusable. They could not know, deprived as they were of means of comparison, the enormous difference which exists between a real mother tongue and one which is not. The merit of the Egyptian priests was not, as has been supposed, in having invented the ancient idiom, which they used instead of the sacred dialect, but in having fathomed the genius, in having well understood its elements, and in having been instructed to employ them in a manner conformable with their nature.

The reader will discern, in glancing through the Vocabulary which I give and which I have restored with the utmost care possible, to what degree of force, clarity and richness, the tongue whose basis it formed, could attain; he will also perceive its usefulness in the hands of the wise and studious man, eager to go back to the origin of speech and to sound the mystery, hitherto generally unknown, of the formation of language.

The universal principle is not for man. All that falls beneath his senses, all that of which he can acquire a real and positive understanding is diverse. God alone is one. The principle which presides at the formation of the Hebrew is not therefore universally the same as that which presides at the formation of Chinese, Sanskrit or any other similar tongue. Although issued from a common source which is Speech, the constitutive principles of the tongues differ. Because a primitive root formed of such or such sign, contains such a general idea in Hebrew, it is not said for that reason that it ought to contain it in Celtic. Very close attention must be given here. This same root can, on the contrary, develop an opposite idea; and this occurs nearly always when the spirit of a people is found in contradiction with that of another people concerning the sentiment which is the cause of the idea. If a person, reading my Vocabulary, seeing the most extended developments follow the simplest premises, and discovering at first glance irresistible relations in Hebrew with his own language and the ancient or modern tongues which he knows, ventures to believe that Hebrew is the primitive tongue from which all the others descend, he would be mistaken. He would imitate those numberless systematic scholars who, not understanding the vast plan upon which nature works have always wished to restrict it to the narrow sphere of their understanding.

It is not enough to have grasped the outline of one single figure to understand the arrangement of a picture. There is nothing so false, from whatever viewpoint one considers it, as that impassioned sentence which has become a philosophic axiom: ab uno disce omnes. It is in following this idea that man has built so many heterogeneous edifices upon sciences of every sort.

The Radical Vocabulary which I give is that of Hebrew; it is therefore good primarily for the Hebrew; secondarily, for the tongues which belong to the same stock, such as Arabic, Coptic, Syriac, etc; but it is only in the third place and in an indirect manner that it can be of use in establishing the etymologies of Greek or Latin, because these two tongues having received their first roots from the ancient Celtic, have with Hebrew only coincidental relations given them by the universal principle of speech, or the fortuitous mixture of peoples: for the Celtic, similar to Hebrew, Sanskrit and Chinese in all that comes from the universal principle of speech, differs essentially in the particular principle of its formation.

The French, sprung from the Celtic in its deepest roots, modified by a mass of dialects, fashioned by Latin and Greek, inundated by Gothic, mixed with Frank and Teutonic, refashioned by Latin, repolished by Greek, in continual struggle with all the neighbouring idioms; the French is perhaps, of all the tongues extant today upon the face of the earth, the one whose etymology is most difficult. One cannot act with too much circumspection in this matter. This tongue is beautiful but its beauty lies not in its simplicity: on the contrary, there is nothing so complicated. It is in proportion as one is enlightened concerning the elements which compose it, that the difficulty of its analysis will be felt and that unknown resources will be discovered. Much time and labour is necessary before a good etymological dictionary of this tongue can be produced. Three tongues well understood, Hebrew, Sanskrit and Chinese can, as I have said, lead one to the origin of speech; but to penetrate into the etymological details of French, it would be necessary to know also the Celtic, and to understand thoroughly all the idioms which are derived therefrom and which directly or indirectly have furnished expressions to that of the Gauls, our ancestors, of the Romans, our masters, or of the Franks, their conquerors. I say to understand thoroughly, for grammars and vocabularies ranged in a library do not constitute real knowledge. I cannot prove better this assertion than by citing the example of Court de Gebelin. This studious man understood Greek and Latin well, he possessed a slight knowledge of the oriental tongues as much as was possible in his time; but as he was ignorant of the tongues of the north of Europe or at least as their genius was unfamiliar to him, this defect always prevented his grasping in their real light, French etymologies. The first step which he took in this course, was an absurd error which might have brought entire discredit upon him if there had been anyone capable of detecting his mistake. He said, for example, that the French word abandon was a kind of elliptical and figurative phrase composed of three words a-bandon; and that it signified a gift made to the people, taking the word ban for the people, the public. Besides it is not true that the word ban may signify people or public in the sense in which he takes it, since its etymology proves that it has signified common or general (1), it was not necessary to imagine an ellipsis of that force to explain abandon. It is only necessary to know that in Teutonic band is a root expressing all that is linked, retained, guarded, and that the word ohn or ohne, analogous to the Hebrew  !ya  is a negation which being added to words, expresses absence. So that the compound band-ohne or aband-ohn, with the redundant vowel, is the exact synonym of our expressions abandon or abandonment.

Court de Gebelin made a graver mistake when he wrote that the French word vérité is derived from a so called primitive root var, or ver, which according to him signified water and all that which is limpid and transparent as that element: for how could he forget that in the Celtic and in all the dialects of the north of Europe the root war, wer, wir, or wahr, ward, develops the ideas of being, in general, and of man in particular, and signifies, according to the dialect, that which is, that which was, and even becomes a sort of auxiliary verb to express that which will be? It is hardly conceivable.

Now if a savant so worthy of commendation has been able to go astray upon this point in treating of French etymologies, I leave to the imagination what those who lack his acquired knowledge would do in this pursuit.

Doubtless there is nothing so useful as etymological science, nothing which opens to the meditation a field so vast, which lends to the history of peoples so sure a link; but also, nothing is so difficult and nothing which demands such long and varied preparatory studies. In the past century when a writer joined to Latin, certain words of Greek and of bad Hebrew, he believed himself a capable etymologist. Court de Gebelin was the first to foresee the immensity of the undertaking. If he has not traversed the route he has at least had the glory of showing the way. Notwithstanding his mistakes and his inadvertencies which I have disclosed with an impartial freedom, he is still the only guide that one can follow, so far as general maxims are concerned, and the laws to be observed in the exploration of tongues. I cannot conceive how a writer who appears to unite so much positive learning as the one who has just published a book in German full of excellent views upon the tongue and science of the Indians (2) can have misunderstood the first rules of etymology to the point of giving constantly for roots of Sanskrit, words of two, three and four syllables; not knowing or feigning not to know that every root is monosyllabic; still less can I conceive how he has not seen that, in the comparison of tongues, it is never the compound which proves an original analogy, but the root. Sanskrit has without doubt deep connection with ancient Celtic and consequently with Teutonic, one of its dialects; but it is not by analyzing about thirty compound words of modern German that these connections are proved. To do this one must go back to the primitive roots of the two tongues, show their affinity, and in compounds, inevitably diverse, distinguish their different genius and give thus to the philosopher and historian, materials for penetrating the esprit of these two peoples and noting their moral and physical revolutions.

In this Prefatory Note, my only object has been to show the difficulty of the etymological science and to warn the overzealous reader as much as possible, against the wrong applications that he might make in generalizing particular principles, and against the errors into which too much impetuosity might lead him.

1. We still say banal to express that which is common. It is worthy of notice that the word banal goes back to the Gallic root ban, which in a restricted sense characterizes a woman; whereas its analogues common and general are attached, the one to the Celtic root gwym, cwym or kum, and the other to the Greek root (greek font), which is derived from it; now these two roots characterize alike, a woman, and all that which is joined, united, communicated, or generated, produced. Cym in Gallic-Celtic, (greek font), or (greek font), in Greek, cum in Latin, serves equally the designative or adverbial relation, to express with. The Greek word (greek font), signifies to be united, to marry, to take wife, and the word gemein which, in modern German holds to the same root, is applied to all that is common, general.

2 Ueber die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier.  I vol. in-8 Heidelberg. 1808.

 


 

RADICAL VOCABULARY

OR

SERIES OF HEBRAIC ROOTS.

 

a

 

a   A. First character of the alphabet in nearly all known idioms. As symbolic image it represents universal man, mankind, the ruling being of the earth. In its hieroglyphic acceptation, it characterizes unity, the central point, the abstract principle of a thing. As sign, it expresses power, stability, continuity. Some grammarians make it express a kind of superlative as in Arabic; but this is only a result of its power as sign. On some rare occasions it takes the place of the emphatic article  h  either at the beginning or at the end of words. The rabbis use it as a sort of article. It is often added at the head of words as redundant vowel, to make them more sonorous and to add to their expression.

Its arithmetical number is 1.

ba   AB. The potential sign united to that of interior activity produces a root whence come all ideas of productive cause, efficient will, determining movement, generative force. In many ancient idioms and particularly in the Persian (persian font), this root is applied especially to the aqueous element as principle of universal fructification.

ba   All ideas of paternity. Desire to have: a father: fruit. In reflecting upon these different significations, which appear at first incongruous, one will perceive that they come from one another and are produced mutually.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains all the significations of the Hebraic root. As noun, it is father and paternity, fruit and fructification; that which is producer and produced; that which germinates and comes forth as verdure upon the earth. As verb (1) it is the action of tending toward a desired end, proceeding, returning, etc.

(l) In order to conceive this root (arabic font) according to its verbal form, we must consider the last character (arabic font) doubled. It is thus that the radical verbs in Arabic are formed. These verbs are not considered as radical by the Arabic grammarians; but on the contrary, as defective and for this reason are called surd verbs. These grammarians regard only as radical, the verbs formed of three characters according to the verb (arabic font) to do, which they give as verbal type. It is therefore from this false supposition, that every verbal root must possess three characters, that the Hebraist grammarians misunderstood the true roots of the Hebraic tongue.

ba   or   bba   (intensive) That which grows, is propagated: vegetation, germination.

bha   (compound) All ideas of love, sympathy, inclination, kindness. It is the sign of life  h  which gives to the idea of desire to have, contained in the root  ba , the movement of expansion which transforms it into that of love. It is, according to the etymological sense, that which seeks to spread out.

bWa   (comp.) This is, in a broader sense, the Universal Mystery, the Matrix of the Universe, the Orphic-Egg, the World, the Vessel of Isis, the Pythonic Mind: in a more restricted sense, belly; leather bottle, cavity, vase, etc.

ga   AG. This root, which is only used in composition, characterizes in its primitive acceptation, an acting thing which tends to be augmented. The Arabic (arabic font) expresses ignition, acrimony, intense excitation.

ga   The Chaldaic  gwa  signifies a lofty, spreading tree: the Hebrew  !wga  a walnut tree: the Arabic (arabic font) contains every idea of magnitude, physically as well as morally.

 

da   AD. This root, composed of the signs of power and of physical divisibility, indicates every distinct, single object, taken from the many.

The Arabic (arabic font) conceived in an abstract manner and as adverbial relation, expresses a temporal point, a determined epoch: when, whilst, whereas.

da   That which emanates from a thing: the power of division, relative unity, an emanation; a smoking fire brand.

dWa   (comp.) That which is done because of or on occasion of another thing: an affair, a thing, an occurrence.

dya   (comp.) Every idea of force, power, necessity: see   dy.

ha   AH. Vocal principle. Interjective root to which is attached all passionate movements of the soul, those which are born of joy and pleasure as well as those which emanate from sorrow and pain. It is the origin of all interjective relations called interjections by the grammarians. Interjections, says Court de Gebelin, varying but slightly as to sound, vary infinitely according to the degree of force with which they are pronounced. Suggested by nature and supplied by the vocal instrument, they are of all times, all places, all peoples; they form an universal language. It is needless to enter into the detail of their various modifications.

ha   The potential sign united to that of life, forms a root in which resides the idea most abstract and most difficult to conceive, that of the will; not however, that of determined or manifested will, but of will in potentiality and considered independent of every object. It is volition or the faculty of willing.

hWa   Determined will: action of willing, desiring, tending toward an object; See  wa

hya   or  yha  Manifested will: place of the desire, object of the will, represented by the adverbial relation where. See  ya.

bha   ( comp. ) Action of desiring, loving, willing. See  ba.

lha   (comp.) A raised, fixed place, where one dwells by choice, o tent. See  la.

wa   AO. The potential sign united to the universal convertible sign, image of the mysterious link which joins nothingness to being, constitutes one of the most difficult roots to conceive which the Hebraic tongue can offer. In proportion as the sense is generalized, one sees appear all ideas of appetence, concupiscible passion, vague desire: in proportion as it is restricted, one discerns only a sentiment of incertitude, of doubt, which becomes extinct in the prepositive relation or.

The Arabic (arabic font) has exactly the same meaning.

bWa   (comp.) Desire acting interiorly. See  ba.

dWa   (comp.) Desire acting exteriorly. See  da.

hWa   (comp.) Action of longing ardently, desiring, inclining with passion. See  ha.

lWa   (comp.) Desire projected into space, represented by the adverbial relation perhaps. See  la

!Wa   (comp.) Desire vanishing, being lost in space in nothingness. See  !a

@Wa   (comp.) Action of drawing into one's will. See  @a

#Wa   (comp.) Action of hastening, pressing toward a desired end. See #wa

rWa   (comp.) Desire given over to its own movement, producing ardour, fire; that which burns, in its literal as well as its figurative sense. See  ra

tWa  (comp.) Action of having the same desire, the same will; agreeing, being of the same opinion. See ta

za   AZ. This root, but little used in Hebrew, designates a fixed point in space or duration; a measured distance. It is expressed in a restricted sense by the adverbial relations there or then.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes a sort of locomotion, agitation, pulsation, bubbling, generative movement. As verb it has the sense of giving a principle; of founding. The Chaldaic  za  expresses a movement of ascension according to which a thing is placed above another in consequence of its specific gravity. The Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (azz) develops all ideas of command, ordination, subordination.

zWa   This is, properly speaking, the action of gas which is exhaled and seeks its point of equilibrium: figuratively, it is the movement of the ascension of fire, ether, gaseous fluids in general.

xa   AH. The potential sign united to that of elementary existence  x  , image of the travail of nature, produces a root whence result all ideas of equilibrium, equality, identity, fraternity. When the sign  x  characterizes principally an effort, the root  xa  takes the meaning of its analogues  ga  and  %a  . and represents a somewhat violent action. It furnishes then all ideas of excitation and becomes the name of the place where the fire is lighted, the hearth.

xa   Brother, kinsman, associate, neighbour: the common hearth where all assemble.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains all the meanings attributed to the Hebrew  x

xa   and  dxa  One: first : all ideas attached to identity, to unity.

wxa   All ideas of junction, adjunction, union, reconciliation. Bulrush, reed, sedge.

zxa   (comp.) All ideas of adhesion, apprehension, apprehension, agglomeration, union, possession, heritage.

rxa   (comp.) That which is other, following, posterior; those who come after, who remain behind; descendants, etc.

ja   AT. This root is scarcely used in Hebrew except to describe a sound, or a slow, silent movement. The

Arabic (arabic font) expresses any kind of murmuring noise.

ja   A magic murmur; witchcraft, enchantment.

ya   AI. Power accompanied by manifestation, forms a root whose meaning, akin to that which we have found in the root  wa  , expresses the same idea of desire, but less vague and more determined. It is no longer sentiment, passion without object, which falls into incertitude: it is the very object of this sentiment, the centre toward which the will tends, the place where it is fixed. A remarkable thing is, that if the root  wa  is represented in its most abstract acceptation by the prepositive relation or, the root  ya  is represented, in the same acceptation, by the adverbial relation where.

The Arabic(arabic font) expresses the same assent of the will, being restricted to the adverbial relation yes. As pronominal relation, (arabic font) distinguishes things from one another; when this root is employed as verb it expresses in (arabic font) or (arabic font) the action of being fixed in a determined place, choosing an abode, being united voluntarily to a thing; etc.

ya   Every centre of activity, every place distinct, separate from another place. An isle, a country, a region; where one is, where one acts.

bya   ( comp.) Every idea of antipathy, enmity, animadversion. It is an effect of the movement of contraction upon the volitive centre  ya  by the sign of interior activity  b.

dya   (comp.) A vapour, an exhalation, a contagion: (hat which is spread without. See  dy.

ya   and  hya  Every exact centre of activity: in a restricted sense, a vulture, a crow: in an abstract sense, there, there where.

%ya   (comp.) The restriction of place, of mode; where and in what fashion a thing acts, represented by the adverbial relations wherefore? how? thus? See  %a.

lya   (comp.) A ram, a deer; the idea of force united to that of desire. See  la.

~ya   (comp.) Every formidable object,  every being leaving its nature; a monster, a giant. It is the root  ya  considered as expressing any centre of activity whatsoever, which assumes the collective sign  ~  to express a disordered will, a thing capable of inspiring terror.

!ya   Absence of all reality. See  !a

vya   (comp.) Intellectual principle constituting man. I shall explain in the notes how the root  ya   united to the root  vya   has formed the compound root  vya  which has become the symbol of intellectual man.

tya   (comp.) Every idea of constancy, tenacity of will: that which is rude, harsh, rough, obstinate.

%a   ACH. This root, composed of the signs of power and of assimilation, produces the idea of every compression, every effort that the being makes upon himself or upon another, to fix him or to be fixed. It is a tendency to make compact, to centralize. In the literal acceptation it is the action of restraining, of accepting. In the figurative and hieroglyphic sense it is the symbol of concentric movement tending to draw near. The contrary movement is expressed by the opposed root  lh   or  la.

It must be observed as a matter worthy of the greatest attention, that in an abstract sense the root  %a  represents the adverbial relation yes, and the root  la  the adverbial relation no. The root  %a expresses again in the same sense, but, however, certainly.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains, as the Hebrew  %a all ideas of pressure, compression, vehemence.

%Wa The Arabic (arabic font) signifies anger, malice, hateful passion. The Syriac (syriac font) is a name of the devil.

%ya Every idea of intrinsic quality, mode, etc.

la   AL. This root springs from the united signs of power and of extensive movement. The ideas which it develops are those of elevation, force, power, extent. The Hebrews and Arabs have drawn from it the name of GOD.

la   Hieroglyphically, this is the symbol of excentric force. In a restricted sense, it is that which tends toward an end, represented by the designative or adverbial relations to, toward, for, by, against, upon, beneath, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) is employed as the universal designative relation the, of the, to the, etc. As verb, it expresses in the ancient idiom, the action of moving quickly, going with promptness from one place to another: in the modern idiom it signifies literally, to be wearied by too much movement.

la   and  lla  (intens.) In its excess of extension, it is that which passes away, which is empty, vain; expressed by the adverbial relations no, not, not so, nought, nothing; etc.

lha   A raised dwelling, a tent.

lWa Action of rising, extending, vanishing, filling time or space.

lya All ideas of virtue, courage or vigour, of physical and moral faculties: of extensive and vegetative force: an oak, a ram, a chief, a prince; the door posts, threshold; etc.

~a  AM. The potential sign united to that of exterior activity; as collective sign it produces a root which develops all ideas of passive and conditional casuality, plastic force, formative faculty, maternity.

~a   Mother, origin, source, metropolis, nation, family, rule, measure, matrix. In an abstract sense it is conditional possibility expressed by the relation if. But when the mother vowel  a  , gives place to the sign of material nature  [  , then the root  ~[  loses its conditional dubitative expression and takes the positive sense expressed by with.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains all the significations of the Hebraic root. As noun it is mother, rule, principle, origin; in a broader sense it is maternity, the cause from which all emanates, the matrix which contains all; as verb, it is the action of serving as example, as model; action of ruling, establishing in principle, serving as cause; as adverbial relation it is a sort of dubitative, conditional interrogation exactly like the Hebrew  ~a  ; but what is quite remarkable is, that the Arabic root (arabic font), in order to express the adverbial relation with, does not take the sign of material nature  [  before that of exterior activity  ~  it takes it after; so that the Arabic instead of saying (arabic font), says in an inverse manner (arabic font). This difference proves that the two idioms although having the same roots have not been identical in their developments. It also shows that it is to Phoenician or to Hebrew that the Latin origins must be brought back, since the word cum (with) is derived obviously from  ~[  , and not from (arabic font).

~Wa   This modification, not used in Hebrew, signifies in Chaldaic the basis of things.

~ya   See  ya

!a   AN. An onomatopoetic root which depicts the agonies of the soul; pain, sorrow, anhelation.

The Arabic (arabic font) used as verb, signifies to sigh, to complain.

!Wa   Every idea of pain, sorrow, trouble, calamity.

!a   The signs which compose this root are those of power and of individual existence. They determine together the seity, sameness, selfsameness, or the me of the being, and limit the extent of its circumscription.

!a   In a broader sense, it is the sphere of moral activity; in a restricted sense, it is the body of the being. One says in Hebrew,  !a  ,I; as if one said my sameness, that which constitutes the sum of my faculties, my circumscription.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops in general the same ideas as the Hebrew  !a  In a restricted sense this root expresses, moreover, the actual time, the present; as adverbial relation it is represented by, that, but, provided that.

!Wa   When the root  !a  has received the universal convertible sign, it becomes the symbol of being, in general. In this state it develops the most opposed ideas. It expresses all and nothing, being and nothingness, strength and weakness, virtue and vice, riches and poverty; according to the manner in which the being is conceived and the idea that one attaches to the spirit or matter which constitutes its essence. One can, in the purity of the Hebraic tongue, make these oppositions felt to a certain point, by enlightening or obscuring the mother vowel  w  in this manner:

 

!Aa   virtue, strength, etc.

!a   the being

 

 

!Wa   vice, weakness, etc.

 

!ya  When the sign of manifestation replaces the convertible sign in the root  !a  , it specifies the sense; but in a fashion nevertheless, of presenting always the contrary of what is announced as real: so that wherever the word  !a  is presented it expresses absence.

sa   AS. Root but little used in Hebrew where it is ordinarily replaced by  va  . The Arabic (arabic font) presents all ideas deduced from that of basis. In several of the ancient idioms the very name of the earth has been drawn from this root, as being the basis of things; thence is also derived the name of Asia, that part of the earth which, long considered as the entire earth, has preserved, notwithstanding all its revolutions, this absolute denomination.

The Chaldaic  ysa  has signified in a restricted sense a physician; no doubt because of the health whose basis he established. The Syriac, Samaritan and Ethiopic follow in this, the Chaldaic.

[a   AH. Root not used in Hebrew. It is an onomatopoetic sound in the Arabic (arabic font), ah! alas! used in defending something. The Chaldaic  [a  , characterizes vegetable matter.

The Arabic expression (arabic font) as a defense, a rejection, gives rise to the compound word (arabic font) which signifies an ironical hyperbole.

@a   APH. Sign of power united to that of speech, constitutes a root, which characterizes in a broad sense, that which leads to a goal, to any end whatsoever; a final cause. Hieroglyphically, this root was symbolized by the image of a wheel. Figuratively, one deduced all ideas of impulse, transport, envelopment in a sort of vortex, etc. The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root, developing all ideas of disgust, ennui, indignation. In the ancient language it was received in the same sense as the Hebrew  @a  , and represented the adverbial relation why.

@a   That part of the mind called apprehension, or comprehension. In a very restricted sense, the nose: figuratively, wrath.

@Wa   Action of conducting to an end, of involving, enveloping in a movement of rotation; action of seizing with the understanding; action of being impassioned, excited, etc.

#a   ATZ. Every idea of bounds, limits; of repressing force, term, end.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses in general, that which is closed and restricted; the central point of things. The Chaldaic  #a  contains every idea of pressure and compression The analogous Arabic root (arabic font) in the modern idiom, signifies every kind of doubling, reiteration. In conceiving the root (arabic font) as representing the centre, substance, depth of things, one finds, in its redoubling (arabic font) a very secret, very hidden place; a shelter, a refuge.

#Wa   Action of hastening, drawing near, pushing toward an end.

qa   ACQ. Every idea of vacuity. Root little used in Hebrew except in composition. The Hebrew word  qa  signifies literally, a wild goat; the Arabic (arabic font) as verb, designates that which is nauseous.

ra   AR. This root and the one which follows are very important for the understanding of the Hebraic text. The signs which constitute the one in question here, are those of power and of movement proper. Together they are the symbol of the elementary principle, whatever it may be, and of all which pertains to that element or to nature in general. Hieroglyphically  ra  was represented by the straight line, and  va  by the circular line.  ra  conceived as elementary principle, indicated direct movement, rectilinear;  va  relative movement, curvilinear, gyratory.

ra   That which belongs to the elementary principle, that which is strong, vigorous, productive.

The Arabic (arabic font) offers the same sense as the Hebrew. It is ardour, impulse in general: in a restricted sense, amorous ardour; action of giving oneself to this ardour; union of the sexes.

ra   or  ray  That which flows, that which is fluid: a river. The Chaldaic  ra  or  rya  signifies air.

rWa   Fire, heat; action of burning.

rAa   Light; action of enlightening, instructing. Life, joy, felicity, grace; etc.

rra   (intens.) In its excessive force, this root develops the ideas of cursing, of malediction.

gra   (comp.) Tapestry, woven material.

hra   (comp.) A gathering, a mass.

zra   (comp.) A cedar.

%ra   (comp.) Every prolongation, extension, slackness.

#ra   or in Chaldaic  qra  (comp.) The earth.

va   ASH. This root, as the preceding one, is symbol of the elementary principle whatever it may be. It is to the root  ra  , what the circular line is to the straight line. The signs which constitute it are those of power and of relative movement. In a very broad sense it is every active principle, every centre unfolding a circumference, every relative force. In a more restricted sense it is fire considered in the absence of every substance.

va   The Hebraic genius confounds this root with the root  sa  , and considers in it all that which is of the basis and foundation of things; that which is hidden in its principle; that which is absolute, strong, unalterable; as the appearance of fire. The Arabic (arabic font) designates that which moves with agility, vehemence. This idea ensues necessarily from that attached to the mobility of fire va

vWa   Action of founding, making solid, giving force and vigour.

vxa   (comp.) Power, majesty, splendour.

vya   (comp.} Man. See ya

ta   ATH. The potential sign united to that of sympathy and of reciprocity, constitutes a root which develops the relations of things to themselves, their mutual tie, their sameness or selfsameness relative to the universal soul, their very substance. This root differs from the root  !a   in what the former designates as the active existence of being, I, and what the latter designates as the passive or relative existence, thee.  !a  is the subject, following the definition of the Kantist philosophers; ta  is the object.

ta   That which serves as character, type, symbol, sign, mark, etc.

tWa   or  tya   The being, distinguished or manifested by its sign; that which is real, substantial, material, consistent. In the Chaldaic,  tya   signifies that which is, and  tyl  that which is not.

The Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font) indicates as noun, an irresistible argument, supernatural sign, proof; as verb, it is the action of convincing by supernatural signs or irresistible arguments.

 

b

 

b   B. BH. This character, as consonant, belongs to the labial sound. As symbolic image it represents the mouth of man, his dwelling, his interior. As grammatical sign, it is the paternal and virile sign, that of interior and active action. In Hebrew, it is the integral and indicative article expressing in nouns or actions, as I have explained in my Grammar, almost the same movement as the extractive article  ~  , but with more force and without any extraction or division of parts.

Its arithmetical number is 2.

ab   BA. The sign of interior action united to that of power, image of continuity, forms a root, whence is drawn all ideas of progression, gradual going, coming; of passage from one place to another; of locomotion.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates in the ancient idiom, a movement of return.

aWb   Action of coming, becoming, happening, bringing to pass; action of proceeding, going ahead, entering, etc. [Original text in French:  aWb  . L'action de venir, de provenir, d'advenir, de parvenir, de naître ; action de procéder, d'aller en avant, d'entrer, etc.]

rab   (comp.) That which is put in evidence, is manifested, etc.; in its literal sense a fountain. See  rb

vab   (comp.) That which becomes stagnant, which is corrupt. See  vb

bb   BB. Every idea of interior void, of exterior swelling.

bb   Pupil of the eye. In Chaldaic, an opening, a door.

The Arabic (arabic font) has the same sense.

bWb   Action of being interiorly void, empty; every image of inanity, vacuity.

gb   BG. That which nourishes; that is to say, that which acts upon the interior; for it is here a compound of the root  ga  united to the sign  b .

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses in general an inflation, an evacuation; it is in a restricted sense in (arabic font), the action of permitting, letting go. As onomatopoetic root (arabic font) characterizes the indistinct cry of a raucous voice.

db   BD. The root  da  , which characterizes every object distinct and alone, being contracted with the sign of interior activity, composes this root whence issue ideas of separation, isolation, solitude, individuality, particular existence.

From the idea of separation comes that of opening; thence that of opening the mouth which is attached to this root in several idioms, and in consequence, that of chattering. babbling, jesting, boasting, lying, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally middle, between. As verb, this root characterizes the action of dispersing.

hb   BH. Onomatopoetic root which depicts the noise made by a thing being opened, and which, representing it yawning, offers to the imagination the idea of a chasm, an abyss, etc.

Whb   An abyss, a thing whose depth cannot be fathomed, physically as well as morally. See  hh .

The Arabic (arabic font), as onomatopoetic root characterizes astonishment, surprise. The Arabic word (arabic font) which is formed from it, designates that which is astonishing, surprising; that which causes admiration. (arabic font) signifies to be resplendent, and (arabic font) glorious.

jhb   (comp.) Marble; because of its weight. See  jh  .

lhb   (comp.) A rapid movement which exalts, which transports, which carries one beyond self: frightful terror. See  lh  .

~hb   (comp.) Everything which is raised, extended, in any sense; as a noise, a tumult; a corps, a troop: it is literally a quadruped. See  ~h  .

!hb   (comp.) Every guiding object; literally the finger.

zb   BZ. The root  za  , which depicts the movement of that which rises to seek its point of equilibrium, being contracted with the sign of interior activity, furnishes all ideas which spring from the preeminence that one assumes over others, of pride, presumption, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally, the action of growing, sprouting, putting forth shoots.

zWb   Action of rising above others, despising them, humiliating them: every idea of disdain, every object of scorn.

zzb   (intens.) In its greatest intensity, this root signifies to deprive others of their rights, of their property; to appropriate them: thence every idea of plunder.

The Arabic (arabic font) has the same sense. The word (arabic font) signifies a bird of prey, a vulture.

xb   BH. This root is used in Hebrew only in composition. The Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (baha) signifies every kind of acid, of ferment.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies in the modern idiom, to blow water between the lips.

lxb   (comp.) Fruit which begins to mature, which is still sour; an early fruit; metaphorically, a thing which annoys, which fatigues.

!xb   (comp.) The test of a fruit to judge if it is ripe; metaphorically, any kind of experiment.

rxb   (comp.) An examination, a proof; in consequence, that which is examined, proved, elected.

jb   BT. The root  ja, which depicts a sort of dull noise, of murmuring, being contracted with the sign of interior activity, characterizes that which sparkles, glistens: it is a vapid and thoughtless locution, futile discourse.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates that which cuts off physically as well as morally. The onomatopoeia (arabic font), characterizes that which falls and is broken.

jjb   (intens.) A flash of wit; a spark.

jhb   (comp.) Crystal. That which throws out brightness, sparks. An emerald, marble, etc.

yb   BI. Root analogous to the roots  ab  ,  hb  ,  Wb  , which characterize the movement of a thing which advances, appears evident, comes, opens, etc. This applies chiefly to the desire that one has to see a thing appear, an event occur, and that one expresses by would to God!

!yb   (comp.) See  !y

ryb   (comp.) See  rb

tyb   (comp.) See  tb

%b   BCH. The root  %a   which develops all ideas of compression, being united to the sign of interior activity, forms the root  %b  , whose literal meaning is liquefaction, fluxion, resulting from a somewhat forceful grasp, as expressed by the Arabic (arabic font).

Thence  %b  , the action of flowing, dissolving in tears, weeping. Every fluid accruing from contraction, from contrition: an overflowing, a torrent, tears, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) has exactly the same meaning.

%Wb  State of being afflicted by pain, saddened to tears.

lb   BL. This root should be conceived according to its two ways of composition: by the first, the root  la  , which designates elevation, power, etc., is united to the sign of interior activity  b  ; by the second, it is the sign of extensive movement  l  , which is contracted with the root  ab  , whose use is, as we have seen, to develop all ideas of progression, gradual advance, etc.; so that it is, in the first case, a dilating force, which acting from the centre to the circumference, augments the volume of things, causing a kind of bubbling, swelling; whereas in the second it is the thing itself which is transported or which is overthrown without augmenting in volume.

lb   Every idea of distention, profusion, abundance; every idea of expansion, extension, tenuity, gentleness. In a figurative sense, spirituality, the human soul, the universal soul, the All, GOD.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes in a restricted sense, that which humectates, moistens, lenifies, dampens, and makes fertile the earth, etc.

llb   (intens.) From excess of extension springs the idea of lack, want, neglect, weakness, nothingness: it is everything which is null, vain, illusory: NOTHING.

The Arabic (arabic font) is restricted to the same sense as the Hebrew, and is represented by the adverbial relation without.

lhb   (comp.) An interior emotion, trouble, confusion, extraordinary perturbation. See  hb  .

lWb   Action of dilating, swelling, boiling, spreading on all sides: a flux, an intumescence, a diffusion; an inundation, a general swelling.

~b   BM. The union of the signs of interior and exterior activity, of active and passive principles, constitutes a root little used and very difficult to conceive. Hieroglyphically, it is the universality of things: figuratively or literally, it is every elevated place, every sublime, sacred, revered thing; a temple, an altar, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies in a restricted sense the fundamental sound of the musical system called in Greek (greek font). See  bq  .

!b   BN. If one conceives the root  ab  , which contains all ideas of progression, growth, birth, as vested with the extensive sign  !  , to form the root  !b  , this root will develop the idea of generative extension, of production analogous to the producing being, of an emanation; if one considers this same root  !b  , as result of the contraction of the sign of interior activity  b  with the root  !a  which characterizes the circumscriptive extent of being, then it would be the symbol of every active production proceeding from potentiality in action, from every manifestation of generative action, from the me.

!b   In a figurative sense it is an emanation, intelligible or sentient; in a literal sense it is a son, a formation, an embodiment, a construction.

The Arabic (arabic font) has exactly the same acceptations as the Hebrew.

!b   Action of conceiving, of exercising one's conceptive, intellectual faculties; action of thinking, having ideas, forming a plan, meditating; etc.

!yb   Intelligence; that which elects interiorly and prepares the elements for the edification of the soul. That which is interior. See  !y

sb   BS. That which belongs to the earth, expressed by the root  sa  ; that which is at the base.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates that which suffices, and is represented by the adverbial relation enough.

sWb   Action of throwing down, crushing, treading upon, pressing against the ground.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies the action of pounding and of mixing; (arabic font) contains every idea of force, violence, compulsion.

[b   BHO. Every idea of precipitate, harsh, inordinate movement. It is the root  ab  , in which the mother vowel has degenerated toward the material sense.

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which expresses bleating, bellowing of animals.

h[b   An anxious inquiry, a search; a turgescence, a boiling; action of boiling, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies in a restricted sense, to sell and to buy, to make a negotiation; (arabic font) to interfere for another, and to prompt him in what he should say. The word (arabic font) which springs from the primitive root  [b  contains all ideas of iniquity and of injustice.

j[b   (comp.) Action of kicking.

l[b   (comp.) Every idea of domination, power, pride: a lord, master, absolute superior; the Supreme Being.

r[b   (comp.) Every idea of devastation by fire, annihilation, conflagration, combustion, consuming heat: that which destroys, ravages; that which makes desert and arid, speaking of the earth; brutish and stupid, speaking of men. It is the root  r[  , governed by the sign of interior activity  b 

t[b   (comp.) Action of frightening, striking with terror, seizing suddenly.

#b    BTZ. Onomatopoeic and idiomatic root which represents the noise that one makes walking in the mud: literally, it is a miry place, a slough.

The Arabic (arabic font) does not belong to the onomatopoetic root  #b  ; it is a primitive root which possesses all the force of the signs of which it is composed. In a general sense, it characterizes every kind of luminous ray being carried from the centre to the circumference. In a restricted sense it expresses the action of gleaming, shining; of glaring at. As noun, it denotes embers. The Chaldaic  a#b  , which has the same elements, signifies to examine, scrutinize, make a search.

#[b   Action of wading through the mud. It is the name given to flax on account of its preparation in water.

qb   BCQ. Every idea of evacuation, of draining. It is the root  qa  united to the sign of interior action  b

qWb   Action of evacuating, dissipating, making scarce.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies eternal; (arabic font) to eternize.

rb   BR. This root is composed either of the elementary root  ra   united to the sign of interior activity  b  or of the sign of movement proper  r  contracted with the root  ab  ; thence, first, every active production with power, every conception, every potential emanation; second, every innate movement tending to manifest exteriorly the creative force of being.

rb   Hieroglyphically, it is the radius of the circle which produces the circumference and of which it is the measure: figuratively, a potential creation: that is to say a fruit of some sort, whose germ contains in potentiality, the same being which has carried it: in the literal sense, a son.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies in a restricted sense, a continent; and in a more extended sense, that which is upright.

rrb   (intens.) Every extracting, separating, elaborating, purifying movement: that which prepares or is prepared; that which purges, purifies, or which is itself purged, purified. Every kind of metal.

The Arabic (arabic font) raised to the potentiality of verb, develops the action of justifying, of purifying.

rab   (comp.) Every idea of manifestation, explanation: that which brings to light, that which explores, that which produces exteriorly. In a very restricted sense, a fountain, a well.

rhb   (comp.) Every idea of lucidity, clarity. That which is candid; resplendent.

rAb   (comp.) Every idea of distinction, éclat, purity. In a restricted sense, wheat.

ryb   or  rAb   (comp.) In a broad sense, an excavation; in a restricted sense, a well; in a figurative sense, an edifice, citadel, palace.

vb   BSH. This root, considered as being derived from the sign of interior activity  b  , united to the root  va  which characterizes fire, expresses every idea of heat and brightness: but if it is considered as formed of the root  ab  which denotes every progression, and of the sign of relative movement  v  then it indicates a sort of delay in the course of proceeding.

The Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font) has also these two acceptations.

The word (arabic font) which belongs to the first, signifies a violence; (arabic font), which belongs to the second, signifies void.

vWb   Action of blushing: experiencing an inner sentiment of modesty or shame: action of delaying, diverting one's self, turning instead of advancing.

vab   (comp.) That which is corrupted. Thence the Chaldaic  vab  ,  vWb  or  avyb  , that which is bad.

tb   TH. Every idea of inside space, place, container, proper dwelling, receptacle, lodge, habitation, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes a thing detached, cut, pruned, distributed in parts. By (arabic font) is understood a sort of gushing forth; by (arabic font) a brusque exit, a clashing.

tWb   Action of dwelling, inhabiting, passing the night, lodging, retiring at home; etc.

tyb   A separate and particular place; a lodge, a habitation; that which composes the interior, the family: that which is internal, intrinsic, proper, local, etc.

 

g

 

g   GH. This character as consonant, belongs to the guttural sound. The one by which I translate it, is quite a modern invention and responds to it rather imperfectly. Plutarch tells us that a certain Carvilius who, having opened a school at Rome, first invented or introduced the letter G, to distinguish the double sound of the C. As symbolic image the Hebraic  g  indicates the throat of man, any conduit, any canal, any deep hollow object. As grammatical sign, it expresses organic development and produces all ideas originating from the corporeal organs and from their action.

Its arithmetical number is 3.

ag   GA. The organic sign  g  united to the potential sign  ga  , constitutes a root which is attached to all ideas of aggrandizement, growth, organic development, augmentation, magnitude.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally to come.

hag   That which augments, becomes wider, is raised, slackens, increases, literally as well as figuratively. Grandeur of height, eminence of objects, exaltation of thought, pride of the soul, ostentation; etc.

lag   (comp.) Every idea of liberation, redemption, release, loosening of bonds: figuratively, vengeance for an offense; metaphorically, the idea of remissness, defilement, pollution.

bg   GB. The organic sign united by contraction to the root  ba  , symbol of every fructification, develops, in general, the idea of a thing placed or coming under another thing.

bg   A boss, an excrescence, a protuberance: a knoll, an eminence; the back; everything convex.

bg   or  bWg  A grasshopper. See  Wg

bbg   (intens.) The sign of interior activity being doubled, changes the effect of the positive root and presents the inverse sense. It is therefore every concavity; a trench, a recess, a furrow: action of digging a trench, of hollowing; etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents the same sense as the Hebrew. As verb it is the action of cutting, of castrating.

gg   GG. Every idea of elasticity; that which stretches and expands without being disunited.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains the same ideas of extension.

gg or gWg The roof of a tent; that which extends to cover, to envelop.

dg   GD. The root  ag  symbol of that which augments and extends, united to the sign of abundance born of division, produces the root  dg  whose use is to depict that which acts in masses, which flocks, agitates tumultuously, assails in troops.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally to make an effort. In a more general sense (arabic font) characterizes that which is important, according to its nature; as adverbial relation this root is represented by very, much, many. The verb (arabic font) signifies to be liberal, to give generously.

dg   An incursion, an irruption, literally and figuratively. An incision in anything whatsoever, a furrow; metaphorically, in the restricted sense, a kid: the sign of Capricorn; etc.

dyg   A nerve, a tendon; everything that can be stretched for action.

hg  ,  Wg  and  yg  GHE, GOU and GHI. The organic sign united either to that of life, or to that of universal convertible force, or to that of manifestation, constitutes a root which becomes the symbol of every organization. This root which possesses the same faculties of extension and aggrandizement that we have observed in the root  ag  contains ideas apparently opposed to envelopment and development, according to the point of view under which one considers the organization.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates universal envelopment, space, atmosphere; (arabic font) characterizes that which protects.

hhg   That which organises; that which gives life to the organs: health, and metaphorically, medicine.

hWg   Every kind of organ dilated to give passage to the vital spirits, or closed to retain them: every expansion, every conclusion: that which serves as tegument; the body, in general; the middle of things: that which preserves them as, the sheath of a sword; etc.

bWg   (comp.) Action of digging, ploughing. In a restricted sense, a scarab.

dWg   (comp.) Action of making an irruption. See  dg

zWg   (comp.) Action of mowing, removing with a scythe. See  zg

xWg   (comp.} Action of ravishing, taking by force. See  xg

yWg   A political organization; a body of people; a nation.

lWg   (comp.) That which brings the organs to development. See  lg

lyg   (comp.} An organic movement; an evolution, a revolution.

[Wg   (comp.) That which disorganizes; every dissolution of the organic system: action of expiring, of being distended beyond measure, of bursting.

@Wg   (comp.) Action of closing.

rWg   (comp.) Action of prolonging, of continuing a same movement, a same route; action of voyaging: action of living in a same place, dwelling there. See  rg

vWg   (intens.) See  vg

zg   GZ. The root  za  which indicates the movement of that which tends to take away, united to the organic sign, constitutes a root whose use is to characterize the action by which one suppresses, takes away, extracts every superfluity, every growth; thence  zWg  the action of clipping wool, shaving the hair, mowing the grass; taking away the tops of things, polishing roughness.

The Arabic (arabic font) has the same meaning as the Hebrew. The verb (arabic font) is applied in the modern idiom to that which is allowable and lawful.

xg   GH. That which is carried with force toward a place, toward a point; that which inclines violently to a thing.

xWg   Action of acting with haughtiness, making an irruption, rushing into a place, ravishing a thing.

The Arabic root (arabic font) has the same meaning in general; in particular, the verb (arabic font) signifies to swagger.

!xg   (comp.) An inclination, a defective propensity, a winding course.

jg   GT. This root is not used in Hebrew.

The Arabic (arabic font) denotes a thing which repulses the effort of the hand which pushes it.

yg   GHI. Root analogous to the roots  hg  and  Wg

ayg   Valley, gorge, depth.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates a place where water remains stagnant and becomes corrupt through standing.

dyg   (comp.) A nerve. See  dg

lyg   (comp.) See  hg  and  lg

ryg   (comp.) That which makes things endure, and preserves them in good condition: in a restricted sense lime.

%g   GCH. This root is not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

lg   GL. This root can be conceived according to its two ways of composition: by the first, it is the root  ag   symbol of all organic extension, united to the sign of directive movement  l  ; by the second, it is the organic sign  g  which is contracted with the root  la  symbol of elevation and expansive force. In the first case it is a thing which is displayed in space by unfolding itself; which is developed, produced, according to its nature, unveiled; in the second, it is a thing, on the contrary, which coils, rolls, complicates, accumulates, heaps up, envelops. Here, one can recognize the double meaning which is always attached to the sign  g  under the double relation of organic development and envelopment.

lg   That which moves with a light and undulating movement; which manifests joy, grace, and ease in its movements. The revolution of celestial spheres. The orbit of the planets. A wheel; a circumstance, an occasion. That which is revealed, that which appears, is uncovered. That which piles up by rolling: the movement of the waves, the swell; the volume of anything whatsoever, a heap, a pile; the circuit or contour of an object or a place: its confines.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents the same ideas of unfoldment and aggrandizement, as much in the physical as in the moral: it is also the unfolding of the sail of a ship, as well as that of a faculty of the soul. (arabic font) expresses at the same time the majesty of a king, the eminence of a virtue, the extent of anything whatsoever.

lg   or  llg  (intens.) Excessive deployment shown in the idea of emigration, transmigration, deportation; abandonment by a tribe of its country, whether voluntarily or by force.

lag   (comp.) A relaxation, either in the literal or figurative sense. See  ag

lWg   Action of unfolding or of turning. Every evolution or revolution.

lyg   An appearance caused by the revelation of the object; effect of a mirror; resemblance.

~g   GM. Every idea of accumulation, agglomeration, complement, height; expressed in an abstract sense by the relations also, same, again.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops, as does the Hebraic root, all ideas of abundance and accumulation. As verb, it is the action of abounding, multiplying; as noun, and in a

restricted sense, (arabic font) signifies a precious stone, in Latin gemma.

!g   GN. The organic sign united by contraction to the root  !a  or  !Aa  forms a root from which come all ideas of circuit, cloture, protective walls, sphere, organic selfsameness.

!g   That which encloses, surrounds or covers all parts; that which forms the enclosure of a thing; limits this thing and protects it; in the same fashion that a sheath encloses, limits and protects its blade.

The Arabic (arabic font) has all the acceptations of the Hebraic root. It is, in general, everything which covers or which surrounds another; it is, in particular, a protecting shade, a darkness, as much physically as morally; a tomb. As verb, this word expresses the action of enveloping with darkness, making night, obscuring the mind, rendering foolish, covering with a veil, enclosing with walls, etc. In the ancient idiom (arabic font) has signified a demon, a devil, a dragon; (arabic font) a shield; (arabic font) bewilderment of mind; (arabic font) an embryo enveloped in the womb of its mother; (arabic font) a cuirass, and every kind of armour; etc. In the modern idiom, this word is restricted to signify an enclosure, a garden.

sg   GS. Root not used in Hebrew. The Chaldaic draws from it the idea of that which is puffed up, swollen, become fat.  sWg  or  syg  signifies a treasure.

The Arabic (arabic font) designates an exploration, a studious research. As verb it is the action of feeling, groping, sounding.

[g   GH. Root analogous to the root Wg  , but presenting the organism under its material view point.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies in the modern idiom to be hungry. In the ancient idiom one finds (arabic font) for a sort of beer or other fermented liquour.

[g   Onomatopoetic and idiomatic root which represents the bellowing of an ox.

h[g   Action of opening the jaw, of bellowing; every clamour, every vociferation.

[Wg   (comp.) Action of bursting. See  Wg

l[g   (comp.) Action of rejecting from the mouth; every idea of disgust.

r[g   (comp.) Every kind of noise, fracas, murmuring.

v[g   (comp.) Action of troubling, frightening by clamours and vociferations.

@g   GPH. All ideas of conservation, protection, guarantee: in a restricted sense, a body.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops the idea of dryness and of that which becomes dry. The verb (arabic font) signifies literally, to withdraw from.

@Wg   Action of enclosing, incorporating, embodying, investing with a body; that which serves for defense, for conservation.

#g   GTZ. Root not used in Hebrew. The Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (gats) characterizes the form, the corporeal figure, the face of things. The Arabic (arabic font) signifies to coat with plaster, or to glaze the interior of structures.

qg   GCQ. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) indicates excrement.

rg   GR. The sign of movement proper  r  , united by contraction to the root of organic extension  ag  , constitutes a root which presents the image of every iterative and continued movement, every action which brings back the being upon itself.

rg   That which assembles in hordes to journey, or to dwell together; the place where one meets in the course of a journey. Every idea of tour, detour; rumination; continuity in movement or in action.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents the idea of violent and continued movement. It is literally, the action of alluring, drawing to one's self, ravishing. The verb (arabic font) signifies to encroach, to usurp.

rrg   (intens.) Duplication of the sign  r  , indicates the vehemence and continuity of the movement of which it is the symbol; thence, the analogous ideas of incision, section, dissection; of fracture, hatching, engraving; of rumination, turning over in one's mind; of grinding, etc.

rhg   (comp.) Every extending movement of the body or of a member of the body. Action of reaching out full length.

ryg   Action of prolonging, continuing an action. See  Wg

vg   GSH. This root represents the effect of things which approach, touch, contract.

vWg   Action of being contracted, made corporeal, dense and palpable; figuratively, matter and that which is obvious to the senses: metaphorically, ordure, filth.

The Arabic (arabic font) denotes every kind of fracture and broken thing.

tg   GTH. That which exercises a force extensive and reciprocally increasing;  tg  , in a restricted sense, a vice, a press.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses the action of squeezing, pressing in the hand, etc.

 

d

 

d   D. This character as consonant belongs to the dental sound. It appears that in its hieroglyphic acceptation, it was the emblem of the universal quaternary; that is to say, of the source of all physical existence. As symbolic image it represents the breast, and every nourishing and abundant object. As grammatical sign, it expresses in general, abundance born of division: it is the sign of divisible and divided nature. The Hebrew does not employ it as article, but it enjoys that prerogative in Chaldaic, Samaritan and Syriac, where it fulfills the functions of a kind of distinctive article.

Its arithmetical number is 4.

ad   DA. This root which is only used in Hebrew in composition, is the analogue of the root  yd  , which bears the real character of the sign of natural abundance and of division. In Chaldaic it has an abstract sense represented by the relations of, of which, this, that, of what.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes a movement which is propagated without effort and without noise.

had   (onom.) Action of flying with rapidity; of swooping down on something: thence  had  a kite;  hyd   a vulture.

bad   (comp.) See  bd

gad   (comp.) See  gd

bd   DB. The sign of natural abundance united by contraction to the root  ba  , symbol of all generative propagation, constitutes a root whence are developed all ideas of effluence and influence; of emanation, communication, transmission, insinuation.

bd   That which is propagated and is communicated by degrees; sound, murmur, rumour, discourse; fermentation, literally and figuratively; vapour; that which proceeds

slowly and noiselessly: calumny, secret plot, contagion.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops in general the idea of that which crawls, insinuates itself, goes creeping along.

bad   In a figurative sense, a dull pain, an uneasiness concerning the future.

bWd   In a restricted sense, a bear, on account of its slow and silent gait.

gd   DGH. The sign of natural abundance joined to that of organic development, produces a root whose use is to characterize that which is fruitful and multiplies abundantly.

gd   It is literally, the fish and that which is akin.

gad   (comp.) In considering this root as composed of the sign  d  united by contraction to the root  ga  which represents an acting thing which tends to augment, one finds that it expresses, figuratively, every kind of solicitude, anxiety, anguish.

dd   DD. Every idea of abundance and division; of propagation, effusion and influence; of sufficient reason, affinity and sympathy.

dd   That which is divided in order to be propagated; that which acts by sympathy, affinity, influence: literally breast, mammal.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates a pleasing thing, game, or amusement.

dAd   Action of acting by sympathy and "by affinity; action of attracting, pleasing, loving; sufficing mutually. In a broader sense, a chosen vessel, a place, an object toward which one is attracted; every sympathetic and electrifying purpose. In a more restricted sense, a friend, a lover; friendship, love; every kind of flower and particularly the mandragora and the violet.

hd  and  wd  DHE and DOU. See the root  yd  of which these are the analogues and which bear the real character of the sign  d

wd   DOU. Onomatopoetic and idiomatic root which expresses a sentiment of pain, trouble, sorrow.

hWd   Action of suffering, lamenting, languishing, being weak.

The Arabic (arabic font) offers as onomatopoetic root, the same sense as the Hebraic  Wd  . Thence, in Hebrew as well as in Syriac, Ethiopic and Arabic, a mass of words which depict pain, anguish, affliction; that which is infirm and calamitous. Thence, in ancient Celtic, the words dol (mourning), dull (lugubrious); in Latin, dolor (pain) dolere (to feel pain); in the modern tongues, their numberless derivatives.

~hd   (comp.) That which overwhelms with astonishment; every sudden calamity, astounding and stupifying.

yWd   and  tAd  Pain, languor, debility.

Ayd   Metaphorically, that which is sombre, lugubrious, funereal, gloomy; mourning.

xd   DH. Every idea of forced influence, impulsion, constraint.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains the same meaning in general. In particular (arabic font) is a sort of exclamation to command secrecy or to impose silence upon someone: hush!

hxd   or  xWd  Action of forcing, necessitating, constraining; action of expulsion, evacuation; etc.

xwd   That which constrains.

yxd   Separation, violent impulsion.

@xd   (comp.) Every idea of excitement,

qhd   (comp.) An impression, an extreme oppression.

jd   DT. This root is not used in Hebrew.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains the idea of rejection and expulsion.

yd   DI. The sign of natural abundance united to that of manifestation, constitutes the true root characteristic of this sign. This root develops all ideas of sufficiency and of sufficient reason; of abundant cause and of elementary divisibility.

hd   or  yd  That which is fecund, fertile, abundant, sufficient; that which contents, satisfies, suffices.

The Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font) indicates, in general, the distribution of things, and helps to distinguish them. In particular, the roots (arabic font) or (arabic font) and (arabic font) are represented by the pronominal demonstrative relations this, that; etc. The root (arabic font) which preserves a greater conformity with the Hebraic root  yd  , signifies literally possession.

!yd   (comp.) That which satisfies everybody; that which makes a difference cease; a judgment.

qyd   (comp.) That which divides, that which reduces to pieces. See  qd

vyd   (comp.) Every kind of trituration. See  vd

%d   DCH. The sign of natural abundance contracted with the root  %a  , symbol of concentric movement and of every restriction and exception, composes a root infinitely expressive whose object is to depict need, necessity, poverty and all ideas proceeding therefrom.

The Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font) constitutes an onomatopoetic and idiomatic root which expresses the noise made in striking, beating, knocking; which consequently, develops all ideas which are attached to the action of striking, as those of denting, breaking, splitting, etc. In a restricted sense (arabic font) signifies to pillage; (arabic font) to ram a gun; (arabic font) to push with the hand.

%d   That which is needy, contrite, sad, poor, injurious, calamitous, vexatious; etc.

%Wd   Action of depriving, vexing by privation, oppressing, beating unmercifully; etc.

ld   DL. This root, conceived as the union of the of natural abundance or of divisibility, with the root  la  symbol of elevation, produces the idea of every extraction, every removal; as for example, when one draws water from a well, when one takes away the life of a plant; from this idea, proceeds necessarily the accessory ideas of exhaustion and weakness.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains the same sense in general; but in particular, this root is attached more exclusively to the idea of distinguishing, designating, conducting someone toward a distinct object. When it is weakened in (arabic font) it expresses no more than a distinction of scorn; disdain, degradation.

ld   That which extracts; to draw or to attract above; that which takes away, drains; that which attenuates, consumes, enfeebles: every kind of division, disjunction; emptiness effected by extraction; any kind of removal. In a very restricted sense, a seal; a vessel for drawing water.

~d   DM. The roots which, by means of any sign whatever, arise from the roots  ba  or  ~a  , symbols of active or passive principles, are all very difficult to determine and to grasp, on account of the extent of meaning which they present, and the contrary ideas which they produce. These particularly demand close attention. It is, at first glance, universalized sympathy; that is to say, a homogeneous, thing formed by affinity of similar parts, and holding to the universal organization of being.

~d   In a broader sense, it is that which is identical; in a more restricted sense, it is blood, assimilative bond between soul and body, according to the profound thought of Moses, which I shall develop in my notes. It is that which assimilates, which becomes homogeneous; mingles with another thing: thence the general idea of that which is no longer distinguishable, which ceases to be different; that which renounces its seity, its individuality, is identified with the whole, is calm, quiet, silent, asleep.

The Arabic (arabic font) has developed in the ancient language the same general ideas; but in the modern idiom this root has received acceptations somewhat different, (arabic font) expresses in general a glutinous, sticky fluid. In particular, as noun, it is blood; as verb, it is the action of covering with a glutinous glaze. From the latter meaning results, in the analogue (arabic font), that of contaminating, calumniating, covering with blame.

~Wd   State of universalized being, that is, having only the life of the universe; sleeping, being silent, calm; metaphorically, taciturn, melancholy. Action of assimilating to one's self, that is, thinking, imagining, conceiving; etc.

!d   DN. The sign of sympathetic divisibility united to the root  !a  , symbol of the circumscriptive activity of being, constitutes a root whose purpose is to characterize, in a physical sense, every kind of chemical parting in elementary nature; and to express, in a moral sense, every contradictory judgment, resting upon litigious things.

The Arabic (arabic font) offers the same sense in general. In particular, (arabic font) expresses a mucous excretion. One understands by (arabic font) the action of judging.

!Wd   Every idea of dissension; literally as well as figuratively; every idea of debate, bestowal, judgment.

!yd   A cause, a right, a judgment, a sentence.

sd   DS. Root not used in Hebrew.

The Arabic (arabic font) designates that which is hidden, concealed; which acts in a secret, clandestine manner.

[d   DH. Every thing which seeks to expose itself, to appear. This root is not used in Hebrew except in composition. The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes that which pushes, that which puts in motion.

[d   or  h[d  Perception of things, consequently, understanding. knowledge.

%[d   (comp.) The root  [d   united by contraction to the root  %a  symbol of restriction, expresses that which is no more sentient, that is extinct, obscure, ignorant.

@d   DPH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font) expresses a sort of rubbing by means of which one drives away cold, and is warmed, (arabic font) is also in Arabic, an onomatopoetic and idiomatic root, formed by imitation of the noise that is made by a stretched skin when rubbed or struck. The Hebrew renders this root by the analogue   @t  . We represent it by the words drum, tympanum; to beat a drum; etc. In the modern Arabic (arabic font) signifies a tambourine, and also a base drum.

The Chaldaic signifies a thing which is smooth as a board, a table. One finds in Hebrew  ypd  for scandal, evil report, shame.

#d   DTZ. Every idea of joy and hilarity.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes the action of shaking a sieve.

#Wd   Action of living in abundance; transported with joy.

qd   DCQ. Every idea of division by break, fracture; that which is made small, slender or thin, by division: extreme subtlety. This root is confounded often with the root  qr

The Arabic (arabic font) develops the same ideas.

qWd   Action of making slender, subtle; etc,

rd   DR. This root, composed of the sign of abundance born of division, united to the elementary root  ra  characterizes the temporal state of things, the age, cycle, order, generation, time. Thence  rd  , every idea of cycle, period, life, customs, epoch, generation, abode.

rAd   Action of ordering a thing, disposing of it following a certain order; resting in any sphere whatsoever; dwelling in a place; living in an age: that which circulates, that which exists according to a movement and a regulated order. An orb, universe, world, circuit; a city.

rrd   (intens.) The broad and generalized idea of circulating without obstacle, of following a natural movement, brings forth the idea of liberty, the state of being free, the action of acting without constraint.

The Arabic (arabic font) has lost almost all the general and universal acceptations of the Hebrew; this ancient root has preserved in the modern idiom only the idea of a fluxion, of yielding plentifully, particularly in the action of milking.

vd   DSH. Every idea of germination, vegetation, elementary propagation.

vWd   In a broad sense, action of giving the seed; and in a more restricted sense that of thrashing the grain, triturating.

The Arabic (arabic font) s has the same meaning as the Hebrew

td   DTH. Everything issued for the purpose of sufficing, satisfying, serving as sufficient reason. td   A law, an edict, an ordinance.

In the modern idiom, the Arabic (arabic font) is limited to signifying a shower; a humid, abundant emission: broth.

 

h

 

h   E. HE. This character is the symbol of universal life. It represents the breath of man, air, spirit, soul; that which is animating, vivifying. As grammatical sign, it expresses life and the abstract idea of being. It is, in the Hebraic tongue, of great use as article. One can see what I have said in my Grammar under the double relation of determinative and emphatic article. It is needless to repeat these details.

Its arithmetical number is 5.

ah   HA. Every evident, demonstrated and determined existence. Every demonstrative movement expressed in an abstract sense by the relations here, there; this, that.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses only an exclamation.

bh   HB. Every idea of fructification and of production. It is the root  ba  of which the sign of life  h  spiritualizes the sense.

bWh   It is again the root  bWa  , but which, considered now according to the symbolic sense, offers the image of being or nothingness, truth or error. In a restricted sense, it is an exhalation, a vapoury-rising, an illusion, a phantom, a simple appearance; etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes in general, a rising, a spontaneous movement, an ignition. As verb, (arabic font) signifies to be inflamed.

gh   HEG. Every idea of mental activity, movement of the mind, warmth, fervour. It is easy to recognize here the root  ga  , which the sign of life spiritualizes.

gh   Every interior agitation; that which moves, stirs, excites; eloquence, speech, discourse; an oratorical piece.

The Arabic (arabic font) conserves of the Hebraic root, only the general idea of an interior agitation. As noun, it is literally a dislocation: as verb, it is the action of changing of place, of expatriation.

dh   HED. Like the root  da  , of which it is only a modification, it is attached to all ideas of spiritual emanation, the diffusion of a thing absolute in its nature, as the effect of sound, light, voice, echo. The Hebraic root is found in the Arabic (arabic font) which is applied to every kind of sound, murmur, noise; but by natural deviation the Arabic root having become onomatopoetic and idiomatic, the verb (arabic font) signifies to demolish, cast down, overthrow, by similitude of the noise made by the things which are demolished.

dwh   Every idea of eclat, glory, splendour, majesty, harmony, etc.

hh   HEH. This is that double root of life of which I have spoken at length in my Grammar and of which I shall still have occasion to speak often in my notes. This root, which develops the idea of Absolute Being, is the only one whose meaning can never be either materialized or restricted.

aWh   In a broad sense, the Being, the one who is: in a particular sense, a being; the one of whom one speaks, represented by the pronominal relations he, that one. this.

The Arabic (arabic font) has the same meaning.

hAh   Preeminently, the verbal root, the unique verb To be-being. In an universal sense, it is the Life of life.

hWh   This root materialized expresses a nothingness, an abyss of evils, a frightful calamity.

hyh   This root, with the sign of manifestation  y  replacing the intellectual sign  A  , expresses the existence of things according to a particular mode of being. It is the absolute verb to be-existing.

hyh   Materialized and restricted, this same root designates a disastrous accident, a misfortune.

Wh   HOU. The sign of life united to the convertible sign, image of the knot which binds nothingness to being, constitutes one of the roots most difficult to conceive that any tongue can offer. It is the potential life, the power of being, the incomprehensible state of a thing which, not yet existing, is found, nevertheless, with power of existing. Refer to the notes.

The Arabic roots (arabic font), (arabic font), (arabic font) having lost nearly all the general and universal ideas developed by the analogous Hebraic roots, and conserving nothing of the intellectual, with the sole exception of the pronominal relation (arabic font) in which some traces are still discoverable, are restricted to the particular acceptations of the root  hyh  of which I have spoken above; so that they have received for the most part a baleful character. Thus (arabic font) has designated that which is cowardly, weak and pusillanimous; (arabic font) that which is unstable, ruinous; the verb (arabic font) has signified to pass on, to die, to cease being. The word (arabic font) which designated originally potential existence, designates only air, wind, void; and this same existence, degraded and materialized more and more in (arabic font) has been the synonym of hell.

~Wh   (comp.) This is the abyss of existence, the potential power of being, universally conceived.

The Arabic (arabic font) having retained only the material sense of the Hebraic root designates a deep place, an abyss; aerial immensity.

!Wh   (comp.) Substance, existence; the faculties which hold to life, to being.

zh   HEZ. Movement of ascension and exaltation expressed by the root  za  , being spiritualized in this one, becomes a sort of mental delirium, a dream, a sympathetic somnambulism.

The Arabic (arabic font) restricted to the material sense signifies to shake, to move to and fro, to wag the head; etc.

xh   HEH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) indicates only an exclamation.

jh   HET. Root not used in Hebrew.

The Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font) indicates, according to the value of the signs which compose this root, any force whatsoever acting against a resisting thing. In a restricted sense (arabic font) signifies to menace; (arabic font) to persevere in labour; (arabic font) to struggle; (arabic font) struggle. See  ja

yh   HEI. Root analogous to the vital root  hh  whose properties it manifests.

The Arabic (arabic font) represents the pronominal relation she, that, this. As verb, this root develops in (arabic font) or (arabic font) the action of arranging, of preparing things and giving them an agreeable form.

ayh   See  awh  of which this is the feminine: she, that, this.

yh   Onomatopoetic root expressing all painful and sorrowful affections.

yAh   Interjective relation, represented by oh! alas! ah! woe!

%h   HECH. See the root  %a  of which this is but a modification.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses a rapid movement in marching; (arabic font) indicates, as onomatopoetic root, the noise of the sabre when it cleaves the air. These two words characterize a vigorous action.

%yh   See  %ya

lh   HEL. The sign of life, united by contraction to the root  la  , image of force and of elevation, gives it a new expression and spiritualizes the sense. Hieroglyphically, the root  lh  is the symbol of excentric movement, of distance; in opposition to the root  %h  , which is that of concentric movement, of nearness: figuratively, it characterizes a sentiment of cheerfulness and felicity, an exaltation; literally, it expresses that which is distant, ulterior, placed beyond.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops in general, the same ideas as the Hebrew. As verb, it is, in particular, the action of appearing, of beginning to shine, in speaking of the moon. As adverbial relation it is, in a restricted sense, the interrogative particle (est-ce-que ?).

lh   or  lyh  That which is exalted, resplendent, elevated, glorified, worthy of praise; that which is illustrious, celebrated, etc.

lh   and  llh  (intens.) That which attains the desired end, which recovers or gives health, which arrives in or conducts to safety.

~h   HEM. Universalized life: the vital power of the universe. See  Wh

~h   Onomatopoetic and idiomatic root, which indicates every kind of tumultuous noise, commotion, fracas.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes, in general, that which is heavy, painful, agonizing. It is literally a burden, care, perplexity. As verb, (arabic font) expresses the action of being disturbed, of interfering, of bustling about to do a thing.

~Wh   Action of exciting a tumult, making a noise, disturbing with clamour, with an unexpected crash; every perturbation, consternation, trembling, etc.

!h   HEN. The sign of life united to that of individual and produced existence, constitutes a root which characterizes existences and things in general; an object, a place; the present time; that which falls beneath the senses, that which is conceived as real and actually exciting.

!h   That which is before the eyes and whose existence is indicated by means of the relations, here, behold, in this place; then, in that time.

The Arabic (arabic font) has in general the same ideas as the Hebrew. It is any thing distinct from others; a small part of anything whatsoever. As onomatopoetic and idiomatic root (arabic font) expresses the action of lulling, literally as well as figuratively.

!Wh   Every idea of actual and present existence: state of being there, present and ready for something: realities, effects of all sorts, riches.

sh   HES. Onomatopoetic and idiomatic root which depicts silence. The Arabic (arabic font) seems to indicate a sort of dull murmur, as when a herd grazes in the calm of night.

[h   HEH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) indicates a violent movement; a sudden irruption.

@h   HEPH. This root, which the Hebraic genius employs only in composition, constitutes in the Arabic (arabic font) an onomatopoeia which depicts a breath that escapes quickly and lightly. As verb, it is the action of grazing, touching slightly, slipping off, etc. See  @a

#h   HETZ. The Chaldaic  #Wh  signifies a branch, and the Arabic (arabic font) a thing composed of several others united by contraction. This root expresses also in the verb (arabic font) the action of gleaming in the darkness, in speaking of the eyes of a wolf.

qh   HECQ. The Arabic (arabic font) indicates an extraordinary movement in anything whatsoever; an impetuous march, a vehement discourse; a delirium, a transport.

rh   HER. The sign of life united by contraction to the elementary root  ra  , constitutes a root which develops all ideas of conception, generation and increase, literally as well as figuratively.

As onomatopoetic root, the Arabic (arabic font) depicts a noise which frightens suddenly, which startles. It is literally, the action of crumbling, or of causing to crumble.

rh   Conception, thought; pregnancy; a swelling, intumescence, inflation; a hill, a mountain; etc.

vh   HESH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally to soften, to become tender. As onomatopoetic root, (arabic font) indicates a tumultuous concourse of any kind whatsoever.

th   HETH. Every occult, profound, unknown existence.

tWh   Action of conspiring in the darkness, of scheming, of plotting.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses the accumulation of clouds and the darkness which results.

 

w

 

w   O. OU. W. This character has two very distinct vocal acceptations, and a third as consonant. Following the first of these vocal acceptations, it represents the eye of man, and becomes the symbol of light; following the second, it represents the ear, and becomes the symbol of sound, air, wind: as consonant it is the emblem of water and represents taste and covetous desire. If one considers this character as grammatical sign, one discovers in it, as I have already said, the image of the most profound, the most inconceivable mystery, the image of the knot which unites, or the point which separates nothingness and being. In its luminous vocal acceptation  A  , it is the sign of intellectual sense, the verbal sign par excellence, as I have already explained at length in my Grammar: in its ethereal verbal acceptation  W  , it is the universal convertible sign, which makes a thing pass from one nature to another; communicating on one side with the sign of intellectual sense  A  , which is only itself more elevated, and on the other, with that of material sense  [  , which is only itself more abased: it is finally, in its aqueous consonantal acceptation, the link of all things, the conjunctive sign. It is in this last acceptation that it is employed more particularly as article. I refer to my Grammar for all the details into which I cannot enter without repeating what I have already said. I shall only add here, as a matter worthy of the greatest attention, that the character  w  , except its proper name  ww  , does not begin any word of the Hebraic tongue, and consequently does not furnish any root. This important observation, corroborating all that I have said upon the nature of the Hebraic signs, proves the high antiquity of this tongue and the regularity of its course. Because if the character  w  is really the universal convertible sign and the conjunctive article, it should never be found at the head of a root to constitute it. Now it must not appear, and indeed it never does appear, except in the heart of nouns to modify them, or between them for the purpose of joining them, or in front of the verbal tenses to change them.

The arithmetical number of this character is 6.

The Arabic, Ethiopic, Syriac and Chaldaic, which are not so scrupulous and which admit the character  w  at the head of a great number of words, prove by this that they are all more modern, and that they have long since corrupted the purity of the principles upon which stood the primitive idiom from which they descend; this idiom preserved by the Egyptian priests, was delivered as I have said, to Moses who taught it to the Hebrews.

In order to leave nothing to be desired by the amateurs of etymological science, I shall state briefly, the most important roots which begin with this character, in the dialects which possess them and which are nearly all onomatopoetic and idiomatic.

 

aw   QUA. Onomatopoetic root which, in the Syriac (syriac font) expresses the action of barking. Thence the Arabic (arabic font) signifies a hungry dog.

bw   OUB. Every idea of sympathetic production, of emanation, of contagion. The Arabic (arabic font) signifies in a particular sense, to communicate a plague or any other contagious malady.

gw   OUG. Aromatic cane. The Arabic, which possesses this root, is derived from (arabic font) action of striking, of amputating; of castrating animals.

dw   OUD. In Arabic (arabic font) every idea of love, friendship, inclination. It is the sympathetic root  dAd  In the modern idiom (arabic font) signifies to cultivate friendship for some one, to give evidence of kindness.

hw   OUH. In Chaldaic and in Arabic, it is an onomatopoetic root which expresses a violent condition of the

soul; (arabic font) is applied to a cry of extreme pain; (arabic font) denotes the roaring of a lion. The verb (arabic font) characterizes that which is torn, lacerated, put to rout.

ww   WOU. Is the name itself of the character  w   in a broad sense it is every conversion, every conjunction; in a restricted sense, a nail.

zw   OUZ. The Syriac (syriac font) signifies literally a goose. The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which represents every kind of excitation. Thence the verbs (arabic font) and (arabic font) which signify to excite, to act with violence, to trample under foot, etc.

xw   OUH. Onomatopoetic root which depicts in the Arabic (arabic font) a hoarseness of the voice. The Ethiopic root (ethiopic font) (whi) characterizes a sudden emission of light, a manifestation. It is the Hebraic root  hWx

jw   OUT. The sound of a voice, clear and shrill, a cry of terror; the kind of pressure which brings forth this cry: in Arabic (arabic font) and (arabic font).

yw   WI. Onomatopoetic root which expresses disdain, disgust, in Chaldaic, Syriac and Ethiopic: it is the same sentiment expressed by the interjective relation fi!

The Arabic (arabic font) has the same sense. In the Ethiopic idiom (ethiopic font) (win) signifies wine; in ancient Arabic (arabic font) is found to designate a kind of raisin.

%w   OUCH. Every agglomeration, every movement given in order to concentrate, in Arabic (arabic font). The compound (arabic font), signifies properly a roll.

lw   OUL. Onomatopoetic root which depicts a drawling and plaintive sound of the voice; in Arabic (arabic font); in Syriac (syriac font). Thence the Arabic (arabic font) every idea of sorrow, anxiety of mind. The word (arabic font) which expresses that which holds to intention, opinion, is derived from the root  la  .

~w   OUM. Every kind of consent, assent, conformity. The Arabic (arabic font) signifies to form, make similar to a model. It is the root  ~a  . The verb (arabic font) signifies to make a sign.

!w   OUN. Every kind of delicacy, corporeal softness, indolence. The Arabic (arabic font) signifies to languish, to become enervated. The Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (thouni) signifies to be corrupted through pleasures.

sw   OUS. Onomatopoetic root representing the noise that one makes speaking in the ear: thence, the Arabic (arabic font) an insinuation, a suggestion. When this word is written (arabic font) then it signifies a temptation of the devil.

[w   OUH. Onomatopoetic root representing the noise of a violent fire, conflagration; thence, the Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (wohi), action of inflaming; the Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font) howling; crackling of a furnace; a clamour, etc.

@w   OUPH. Onomatopoetic root which expresses a sentiment of pride on the part of one who sees himself raised to dignity, decoration, power. Thence, the Arabic (arabic font) every idea of exterior ornament, dress, assumed power.

#w   OUTZ. Every idea of firmness, solidity, consistence, persistence: thence, the Arabic (arabic font) which signifies in general, that which resists, and in particular necessity. The verb (arabic font) signifies to vanquish resistance; also, to make expiation; a religious ablution.

qw   OUCQ. Onomatopoetic root to express literally the voice of birds, in Arabic (arabic font) and (arabic font): figuratively, that which is made manifest to the hearing.

rw   OUR. Onomatopoetic root which depicting the noise of the air and the wind, denotes figuratively, that which is fanned, puffed with wind, vain, in Arabic (arabic font). The verb (arabic font) which appears to be attached to the root  ra  , characterizes the state of that which is sharp, which cleaves the air with rapidity.

vw   OUSH. Onomatopoetic root which expresses the confused noise of several things acting at the same time: it is confusion, diffusion, disordered movement, in Arabic (arabic font). The verb (arabic font) expresses the action of tinting with many colours, of painting.

tw   OUTH. Onomatopoetic root which depicts the difficulty of being moved and the moaning which follows this difficulty: thence, in Arabic (arabic font), and (arabic font), all idea of lesion in the limbs, numbness, decrepitude, affliction, etc.

 

z

 

z   Z. This character as consonant, belongs to the hissing sound, and is applied as onomatopoetic means, to all hissing noises, to all objects which cleave the air. As symbol, it is represented by the javelin, dart, arrow; that which tends to an end: as grammatical sign, it is the demonstrative sign, abstract image of the link which unites things. The Hebrew does not employ it as article; but in Ethiopic it fulfills the functions of the demonstrative article.

Its arithmetical number is 7.

az   ZA. Every idea of movement and of direction; noise, the terror which results therefrom: a dart; a luminous ray; an arrow, a flash.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates, as onomatopoetic root the state of being shaken in the air, the noise made by the thing shaken.

baz   A wolf, on account of the luminous darts which flash from its eyes in the darkness.

taz   Demonstrative relation expressed by this, that. See  hz

bz   ZB. The idea of reflected movement contained in the root  az  united by contraction to that of all generating propagation, represented by the root  ba  , forms a root whose object is to depict every swarming, tumultuous movement, as that of insects; or every effervescent movement as that of water which is evaporated by fire.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops the same ideas as the Hebrew. As verb, this root expresses in the ancient idiom, the action of throwing out any excretion, as scum, slime, etc. In the modern idiom it signifies simply to be dried, in speaking of raisins.

bWz   Action of swarming as insects; of boiling, seething, as water.

gz   ZG. That which shows itself, acts exteriorly; such as the bark of a tree, the shell of an egg, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) designates the butt-end of a lance. As onomatopoetic root (arabic font) characterizes a quick, easy movement; (arabic font), the neighing of a horse.

dz   ZD. That which causes effervescence, excites the evaporation of a thing; every idea of arrogance, pride.

dWz   Action of boiling, literally; of being swollen, puffed up with pride, figuratively, to act haughtily.

hz   Wz   Az   ZHE, ZOU, ZO. Every demonstrative, manifesting, radiant movement: every objectivity expressed in an abstract sense by the pronominal relations this, that, these, those.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses the action of shedding light, of shining.

taz   This, that.

hz   That which is shown, appears, shines, reflects the light; in an abstract sense, an object.

bhz   (comp.) Gold, on account of its innate brightness.

~hz   (comp.) That which is loathsome.

rhz   (comp.) That which radiates communicates, manifests the light. See  rAa

Wz   Absolute idea of objectivity; everything from which light is reflected.

tywz   (comp.) A prism; by extension, the angle of anything whatsoever.

lWz   (comp.) Action of diverging; by extension, wasting, neglecting. See  lz

!Wz   (comp.) Corporeal objectivity. See  !z

[Wz   (comp.) See  [z

rWz   (comp.) Every idea of dispersion. See  rz

zz   ZZ. Every movement of vibration, reverberation; every luminous refraction.

The Arabic (arabic font) as onomatopoetic root develops the same ideas. The verb (arabic font) denotes the conduct of an arrogant man.

zWz   Action of vibrating, being refracted as the light, shining.

zyz   Splendour, reflection of light, luminous brightness.

xz   ZH. Every difficult movement made with effort; that which is done laboriously; a presumptuous, tenacious spirit.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops the same ideas. The verb (arabic font) expresses in general a vehement action of any nature whatsoever; in particular to rain in torrents.

jz   ZT. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which depicts the noise made by insects when flying.

lxz   (comp.) That which is difficult to put in movement, slow in being determined. That which drags, creeps; which is heavy, timid, etc.

yz   ZI. Root analogous to roots  az   hz   Az  ; but whose sense is less abstract and more manifest, It is in general, that which is light, easy, agreeable; that which is sweet, gracious; that which shines and is reflected as light. Every idea of grace, of brightness.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops in general, all ideas which have relation with the intrinsic qualities of things. As noun (arabic font) characterizes the form, aspect, manner of being; as verb (arabic font) expresses the action of assuming an aspect, of being clothed in form, of having quality, etc.

Ayz   In Chaldaic, splendour, glory, majesty, joy, beauty: in Hebrew it is the name of the first month of

spring.

zyz   (comp.) An animal; that is to say, a being which reflects the light of life. See  zz

!yz   (comp. ) An armour: that is to say a resplendent body. The Arabic (arabic font) signifies to adorn.

qyz   (comp.) A flash of lightning, a quick, rapid flame, a spark, etc.

tyz   (comp.) An olive tree, the olive and the oil which it produces; that is to say, the luminous essence.

%z   ZCH. The demonstrative sign united by contraction to the root  %a  , symbol of all restriction and exception, constitutes an expressive root whose purpose is

to give the idea of that which has been pruned, cleaned, purged, disencumbered of all that might defile.

%z   Every purification, every refining test; that which

is clean, innocent, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains the same ideas. As noun (arabic font) designates that which is pure, pious; as verb, (arabic font) characterizes the state of that which abounds in virtues, in good works.

lz   ZL. The demonstrative sign united to the root  la  , symbol of every elevation, of every direction upward, forms a root whence are developed all ideas of elongation, prolongation; consequently, of attenuation, weakness; also of prodigality, looseness, baseness, etc.

lWz   Action of wasting, profaning, relaxing; of rendering base, weak, feeble, etc.

In a restricted sense the Arabic verb (arabic font) signifies to stumble, to make false steps.

~z   ZM. That which gives form, figure; that which binds many parts together to form a whole.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains the same ideas. As onomatopoetic and idiomatic root, it is in the Arabic (arabic font) a dull noise, a rumbling.

~z   A system, a composition, a scheme: every work of the understanding, good or bad: a plot, a conspiracy, etc.

!z   ZN. The demonstrative sign united to the root  !a  , symbol of the moral or physical circumscription of the being, constitutes a root which develops two distinct meanings according as they are considered as mind or matter. From the view point of mind, it is a moral manifestation which makes the faculties of the being understood and determines the kind; from that of matter, it is a physical manifestation which delivers the body and abandons it to pleasure. Thence:

!z   Every classification by sort and by kind according to the faculties: every pleasure of the body for its nourishment: figuratively, all lewdness, fornication, debauchery: a prostitute, a place of prostitution, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses a sort of suspension of opinion in things of divers natures. As onomatopoetic root (arabic font), describes a murmuring.

!Wz   Action of being nourished, feeding the body; or metaphorically the action of enjoying, making abuse, prostituting one's self.

sz   ZS. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

[z   ZH. This root, which is only the root  hz  or  Az  , inclined toward the material sense, develops the idea of painful movement, of agitation, anxiety; of trouble caused by fear of the future.

In a restricted sense the Arabic (arabic font) signifies to act like a fox, to use round about ways.

[Wz   Action of being troubled, fearful, trembling in expectation of misfortune. Action of being tormented, disquieted.

h[z   Trouble, agitation of mind, fatigue; that which is the consequence, sweat.

~[z   (comp.) Violent and general agitation; that which results, foam: figuratively, rage indignation.

@[z   ( comp. ) Tumult of irascible passions; tempest, storm; etc.

q[z   (comp.) Great visible commotion: outburst of voices, clamour, loud calling.

r[z   (comp.) Ebbing, waning: diminution, exiguity; that which is slender, moderate, small.

@z   ZPH. That which is sticky, gluey; that which exercises a mutual action; literally, pitch.

It is, in the Arabic (arabic font) an onomatopoetic root which denotes the effect of a puff of wind. The verb (arabic font) expresses the action of being carried away by the wind.

@Wz   Action of being attached, of experiencing a mutual, reciprocal sentiment.

#z   ZTZ. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

qz   ZCQ. Every idea of diffusion in time or space.

The Arabic (arabic font) as onomatopoetic root denotes the action of pecking.

qz   A chain, suite, flux; a draught of anything whatsoever. That which spreads, glides, flows in space or time. Thence, years, old age, and the veneration which is attached to it: water and the purity which ensues: a chain and the strength which attends it; an arrow, etc.

In a restricted sense, the Arabic (arabic font) signifies a leather bottle wherein one puts any kind of liquid. It is doubtless the Hebrew word  qv  or the Chaldaic  vs  , a sack.

rz   ZR. The demonstrative sign united to that of movement proper, symbol of the straight line, constitutes a root which develops the idea of that which goes from the centre, spreads, disperses in every sense, radiates, leaves a sphere, or any enclosure whatsoever and becomes foreign.

rz   Every dispersion, dissemination, ventilation: that which is abandoned to its own movement, which goes

from the centre, diverges: in a broad sense, a stranger, an adversary, a barbarian: in a more restricted sense, a

fringe, a girdle.

The Arabic (arabic font) having lost all the primitive ideas contained in this root, has preserved only those which are attached to the word girdle and is restricted to signifying the action of girding, tying a knot, binding, etc.

rWz   Action of being disseminated, separated from the centre, abandoned to its own impulsion; considered as estranged, alienated, scorned, treated as enemy; action of sneezing, etc.

vz   ZSH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) signifies a lout, a boorish fellow; lacking manners and politeness.

tz   ZTH. Every objective representation expressed by the pronominal relations this, that, these, those.

taz   This, that.

 

x

 

x   E. H. CH. This character can be considered under the double relation of vowel or consonant. As vocal sound it is the symbol of elementary existence and represents the principle of vital aspiration: as consonant it belongs to the guttural sound and represents the field of man, his labour, that which demands on his part any effort, care, fatigue. As grammatical sign it holds an intermediary rank between  h  , life, absolute existence, and  k  , life, relative and assimilated existence. It presents thus, the image of a sort of equilibrium and equality, and is attached to ideas of effort, labour, and of normal and legislative action.

Its arithmetical number is 8.

ax   HA. Root is analogous with the root  wx  , which bears the real character of the sign  x  . This is used more under its onomatopoetic relation, to denote the violence of an effort, a blow struck, an exclamatory cry.

bx   HEB. The sign of elementary existence united to the root  ba  , symbol of all fructification, forms a root whose purpose is to describe that which is occult, hidden, mysterious, secret, enclosed, as a germ, as all elementary fructification: if the root  ba  is taken in its acceptation of desire to have, the root in question here, will develop the idea of an amorous relation, of fecundation.

This is why the Arabic (arabic font) taken in a restricted sense, signifies to love; whereas in a broader sense this root develops all ideas of grain, germ, semence, etc.

bx   or  bbx   (intens.) To hide mysteriously, to impregnate, to "brood, etc.

In a restricted sense, the Arabic (arabic font) signifies to become partial, to favour. As onomatopoetic root (arabic font) suggests the noise of whetting a sabre.

bWx   (comp.) One who hides, who keeps the property of another; a debtor.

gx   HEG. Every hard and continued action; every turbulent movement: every transport of joy; joust, game, popular fete, tournament, carousal.

gx   or  ggx   (intens.) Every idea of fete, of solemnity, where all the people are acting.

It is, in the Arabic (arabic font), the action of visiting a holy place, going on a pilgrimage; in (arabic font), that of trotting.

gWx   Action of whirling, dancing in a ring, devoting one's self to pleasure, celebrating the games. Metaphorically, an orbit, a circumference, a sphere of activity, the terrestrial globe.

dx   HED. The power of division, expressed by the root  da   which, arrested by the effort which results from its contraction with the elementary sign  x  , becomes the image of relative unity. It is literally, a sharp thing, a point, a summit.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents in general, the ideas of terminating, determining, circumscribing, limiting. It is, in a more restricted sense, to grind; metaphorically, to punish. This root being reinforced in the verb (arabic font), expresses the action of breaking through and excavating the ground. As noun, (arabic font) signifies literally the cheek.

dx   The point of anything whatever. Everything which pricks, everything which is extreme, initial: metaphorically, a drop of wine; gaiety, lively and piquant.

dWx   Action of speaking cleverly, uttering witticisms, giving enigmas.

dyx   Enigma, parable.

hx   HEH. This root, analogue of the root  ax  , is little used. The characteristic root of the sign is  wx

wx   HOU. Elementary existence in general; in particular, that which renders this existence manifest and obvious; that which declares it to the senses.

In the analogue (arabic font), this root has not conserved the intellectual ideas of the Hebrew; but being reinforced in (arabic font), it has presented what is most profound in elementary existence, chaos.

hWx   and yWx   All ideas of indication, elementary manifestation, declaration; action of uncovering that which was hidden, etc.

bWx   (comp.) See  bx

gWx   (comp.) See  gx

dWx   (comp.) See  dx

zWx   (comp.) The horizon. See  zx

xWx   (comp.) Action of hooking. See  xx

jWx   (comp.) Action of mending, sewing. See  jx

lWx   (comp.) See  lx

~Wx   (comp.) See  ~x

sWx   (comp.) Action of sympathizing, condoling. See  sx

#Wx   (comp.) That which is exterior, or which acts exteriorly; that which leaves the ordinary limits and which, in an abstract sense is expressed by the relations beyond, outside, extra, except, etc.

rWx   (comp.) See  rx

vWx   (comp.) See  vx

zx   HEZ. The sign of elementary existence, united to that of demonstration, or of objective representation, forms a very expressive root whose purpose is to bring forth all ideas of vision, visual perception, contemplation.

The Arabic (arabic font) in losing all the intellectual acceptations of the Hebraic root, has conserved only the physical ideas which are attached to it as onomatopoetic root, and is limited to designating any kind of notch, incision; metaphorically, scrutiny, inspection. The verb (arabic font) signifies literally to pierce.

zx   Action of seeing, regarding, considering, contemplating; the aspect of things; a seer, a prophet, one who sees.

zzx   (intens.) A vision; a flash of lightning.

zWx   Extent of the sight, the horizon; boundaries, the limits of a thing; a region.

xx   HEH. Every idea of effort applied to a thing, and of a thing making effort; a hook, fish-hook, ring; a thorn-bush.

xWx   That which is pointed, hooked; that which exercises any force whatever, as pincers, hooks, forceps: thence the Arabic verb (arabic font), to penetrate, to go deeply into.

jx   HET. The sign of effort united to that of resistance, constitutes a root whence come all ideas of frustrated hope; of failure, sin, error.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies properly to cut in small morsels; and (arabic font), to pose, depose; place, replace: to lower, humble, reduce, etc.

jx  or  jjx   (intens.) That which misses the mark, which is at fault, which sins in any manner whatsoever.

jWx   (comp.) The root  jx  , symbol of effort united to resistance, (being considered from another viewpoint, furnishes the restricted idea of spinning, and in consequence, every kind of thread, and of sewing; so that from the sense of sewing, comes that of mending; metaphorically, that of amendment, restoration: whence it results that the word  ajx  , which signifies a sin, signifies also an expiation.

yx   HEI. Elementary life and all ideas thereunto attached. This root is the analogue of the root  wx

hyx   Action of living in the physical order, action of existing: that which lives; every kind of animal, living being, beast. Physical life, the animality of nature.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops every idea contained in the Hebraic root.

lyx   (comp.) Vital force; that which maintains, procures, sustains existence: elementary virtuality; the physical faculties, literally as well as figuratively: power which results from force; virtue which is born of courage; an army, that which is numerous, valorous, redoubtable; a fort, fortress, rampart; a multitude, etc.

%x   HECH. The sign of elementary existence united to that of assimilative and relative existence, forms a root which is related to all perceptions of judgment and which develops all interior ideas.

(Le signe de l'existence élémentaire, réuni à celui de l'existence assimilée et relative, forme une racine qui se rapporte à toutes les perceptions du tact, et qui en développe toutes les idées intérieures)

The Arabic root (arabic font), having lost nearly every moral idea which comes from the primitive root and being confined to purely physical ideas, is limited to express as noun, an itching, a friction; and as verb, the analogous action of itching, scratching.

%x   That which grasps forms inwardly and which fixes them, as the sense of taste; that which is sapid; sensible to savours; the palate, throat: that which covets, desires, hopes, etc.

lx   HEL. This root, composed of the sign of elementary existence united to the root  la  , symbol of extensive force and of every movement which bears upward, produces a mass of ideas which it is very difficult to fix accurately. It is, in general, a superior effort which causes a distention, extension, relaxation; it is an unknown force which breaks the bonds of bodies by stretching them, breaking them, reducing them to shreds, or by dissolving them, relaxing them to excess.

lx   Every idea of extension, effort made upon a thing to extend, develop, stretch or conduct it to a point or end: a twinge, a pain: a persevering movement; hope, expectation.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops, in general, all the ideas contained in the Hebraic root. In a restricted sense it is the action of loosening, relaxing, releasing, resolving, absolving, etc. When this root receives the guttural reinforcement, it expresses in (arabic font), the state of privation, indigence; that which lacks, which is wanting in any manner whatsoever.

lx   and  llx  (intens.) Distention, distortion, contortion; endurance, solution of continuity; an opening, a wound: extreme relaxation, dissolution; profanation, pollution; weakness, infirmity, debility; vanity, effeminate dress, ornament; a flute; a dissolute dance, a frivolous amusement; etc.

lWx   or lyx   Action of suffering from the effect of a violent effort made upon one's self; action of being twisted, stretched, action of being confined, bringing into the world; being carried in thought or action toward an end; producing ideas: action of tending, attending, hoping, placing faith in something; action of disengaging, resolving, dissolving, opening, milking, extracting, etc.

lyx   (comp.) Elementary virtuality. See  yx

~x   HEM. The sign of elementary existence, symbol of every effort and every labour, united to the sign of exterior activity, and employed as collective and generalizing sign, forms an important root whose purpose is to signify, in a broad sense, a general envelopment and the warmth which results, considered as an effect of contractile movement.

~x   Idea of that which is obtuse; curved, hot, obscure; enveloping, striking; a curvature; dejection; a compressive force: natural heat, solar fire, torrefaction and the burnish which follows; blackness: that which heats, literally or figuratively; generative ardour, amorous passion, wrath, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font), having lost to a certain point, the intellectual ideas developed by the Hebraic root, is limited to expressing the particular ideas of warmth and heating; when reinforced by the guttural aspiration in (arabic font), it signifies literally to be corrupted, spoiled, putrefied.

~Wx   Action of enveloping, seizing by a contractile movement, exercising upon something a compressive force; heating; rendering obscure. In a restricted sense, a wall, because it encloses; a girdle, because it envelops; in general, every curved, round figure; simulacrum of the sun, etc.

!x   HEN. The composition of this root is conceived in two ways, according to the first, the sign  x  , which characterizes every effort, every difficult and painful action, being contracted with the onomatopoetic root  !a  , image of pain, expresses the idea of a prayer, a supplication, a grace to grant or granted: according to the second, the same sign, symbol of elementary existence, being united to that of individual and produced existence, becomes a sort of reinforcement of the root  !h  and designates all proper and particular existences whether in time or space.

!x   That which results from prayer; as grace, a favour; that which is exorable, which allows itself to relent; that which is clement, merciful, full of pity: that which is easy, a good bargain, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops, as the Hebraic root, all ideas of kindness, mercy, tenderness, clemency. This root in reinforcing itself in (arabic font) designates separation, seclusion; it is, literally, a place for travellers, a hostelry. As onomatopoetic root, (arabic font) expresses the action of speaking through the nose.

!x   Every separate intrenched place: a cell, a hospice, a fort, a camp. Action of living apart, having one's own residence, being fixed, intrenched, and consequently to besiege, to press the enemy, etc.

sx   HES. Every silent, secret action; that which is done with connivance; that which is confided, trusted or said secretly.

sWx   Action of conniving at a thing, of sympathizing; of conspiring: a place of refuge, a shelter, etc. It is also the action of making effort upon one's self, of experiencing an interior movement of contrition.

The diverse acceptations of the Hebraic root are divided in the analogous Arabic words (arabic font), (arabic font), (arabic font) and (arabic font) in which they modify themselves in diverse manners. Considered as verb, (arabic font) signifies to feel, to have the sensation of some thing; (arabic font) to act with celerity, (arabic font) to diminish in volume, to be contracted, shrunken; (arabic font) to particularize, etc.

[x   HEH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) indicates a grievous and painful sensation.

@x   HEPH. Every idea of protective covering given to a thing; a guarantee, a surety.

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic and idiomatic root, which depicts that which acts upon the surface, which skims, passes lightly over a thing. The verb (arabic font) characterizes the condition of that which becomes light; (arabic font) anything which shivers, shudders with fear, trembles with fright, etc.

@Wx   Action of covering, protecting, brooding, coaxing. A roof, nest, shelter, port: action of separating from that which harms; of combing, appropriating, etc.

#x   HETZ. Every idea of division, scission, gash, cut; that which acts from the exterior, as the adverbial relation  #Wx  expresses, outside.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies to stimulate; and (arabic font) to keep stirring, to agitate.

#x   That which divides by making irruption, passing without from within: an arrow, an obstacle; a stone coming from the sling; an axe, a dart: a division of troops; a quarrel; etc.

qx   HECQ. Every idea of definition, impression of an object in the memory, description, narration; that which pertains to symbols, to characters of writing. In a broader sense matter used according to a determined mode.

qx   The action of defining, connecting, giving a dimension, deciding upon forms; of hewing, cutting after a model; to carve, to design: a thing appointed, enacted, decreed, constituted, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops, in general, the same ideas as the Hebraic root; but is applied more particularly to that which confirms, verifies, certifies; to that which is true, just, necessary.

rx   HER. The sign of elementary existence united to that of movement proper, symbol of the straight line, constitutes a root which develops, in general, the idea of a central fire whose heat radiates. It is in particular, a consuming ardour, literally as well as figuratively.

The Arabic (arabic font) has exactly the same meaning. When this root is reinforced by the guttural aspiration in (arabic font) it is no longer applied to the expansion of heat, but to that of any fluid whatsoever. In a restricted sense (arabic font) signifies to ooze.

rx   and  rrx  (intens.) That which burns and consumes, that which is burned and consumed; that which is arid, desert, barren; every kind of residue, excrement: the mouth of a furnace, the entrance of a cavern; etc.

rWx   Action of consuming by fire; setting fire, irritating: the ardour of fever, that of wrath; effect of the flame, its brilliancy; the blush which mounts to the face; candour; every purification by fire; etc.

[rx   (comp.) That which is sharp, cutting, acute, stinging, destructive.

vx   HESH. Every violent and disordered movement, every inner ardour seeking to extend itself; central fire; avaricious and covetous principle; that which is arid.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops in general, the same ideas as the Hebrew. As onomatopoetic root, (arabic font) expresses the action of chopping, mowing; when it is reinforced by the guttural aspiration, it signifies, in the verb (arabic font), to penetrate.

vWx   Action of acting with vehemence upon something; every vivacity; avidity; aridity. This root, taken in the latter sense of aridity, is applied metaphorically, to that which is barren, which produces nothing; to mutes; to those who do not speak, who keep silent.

tx   HETH. This root contains all ideas of shock, terror, sympathetic movement which depresses and dismays. It is, in general, the reaction of useless effort; elementary existence driven back upon itself; in particular, it is a shudder, consternation, terror; a sinking, a depression; a degradation, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) has not conserved the moral ideas developed by the Hebraic root. It is, as onomatopoetic root, an exciting, instigating, provocative movement.

 

j

 

j   T. This character, as consonant, belongs to the dental sound. As symbolic image it represents the shelter of man; the roof that he raises to protect him; his shield. As grammatical sign it is that of resistance and protection. It serves as link between  d  and  t  , and partakes of their properties, but in an inferior degree.

Its arithmetical number is 9.

aj   TA. Every idea of resistance, repulsion, rejection, reflection; that which causes luminous refraction.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops the idea of every kind of bending, inflection. Thence the verb (arabic font), to bow down.

jaj   (intens.) Action of repulsing a dart, as from a shield; of making hail rebound, as from a roof; etc.

bj   TB. The sign of resistance united to that of interior action, image of all generation, composes a root which is applied to all ideas of conservation and central integrity: it is the symbol of healthy fructification, and of a force capable of setting aside every corruption.

The Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font), has, in general, the same sense as the Hebrew. In a restricted sense, (arabic font) signifies to amend; (arabic font), to supply the want, the lack of anything whatsoever; to become well, to be healed, etc.

bWj   That which keeps a just mean; that which is well, healthy; that which defends itself and resists corruption; that which is good.

gj   TG. Root not used in Hebrew.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates a violent shock, a warlike cry. By (arabic font) is understood, that which declares force, audacity, pride. In a restricted sense (arabic font) signifies a crown, a mitre.

dj   TD. Root not used in Hebrew.

The Arabic (arabic font) seems to indicate a thing strong and capable of resistance.

hj   TEH. Root analogous to the root  aj   It is only used in composition.

The Arabic (arabic font) as interjection, inspires security. In a restricted sense, the verb (arabic font) or (arabic font)  signifies to dispose of and prepare a thing in such a way as to render it useful.

rhj   (comp.) That which is pure. See  rj

wj   TOU. That which arrests, which opposes resistance. See  aj

The Arabic (arabic font) is used as adverbial relation to impose silence upon someone. (arabic font) signifies literally an hour.

bWj   (comp.) That which is good. See  bj

hWj   Every kind of thread, of spinning: a net.

xWj   Action of placing in safety, guaranteeing, covering, inlaying: a covering, an inlay, a coat of plaster;etc.

lWj   (comp.) Action of projecting, especially the shadow. See  lj

rWj   (comp.) Action of disposing, putting in order. See  rj

vWj   (comp.) Action of flying away, disappearing. See  vj

zj   TZ. Root not used in Hebrew. Appears only in Arabic through wrong usage. (Il ne paraît pas que l'arabe en fasse).

xj   TEH. Every idea of a stroke hurled or repulsed; metaphorically, a calumny, an accusation.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses as onomatopoetic root, the action of repulsing with the foot. This root reinforced by the guttural aspiration, signifies in (arabic font) to be obscured, made dense, thick; in (arabic font), to be lessened.

jj   TT. Root not used in Hebrew. The Chaldaic  jj  is sometimes taken to express the number two.

The Arabic (arabic font) appears to designate putrid slime, offensive mire.

yj   TI. Root analogous to the root  aj   , and which like it, expresses every kind of reflection as is indicated by the following:

jyj   (intens.) That which gushes forth; that which splashes, as mud, slime, mire; etc. Figuratively, the earth.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies properly to bend, to give way, to be soft.

%j   TCH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Chaldaic is used to signify a siege.

As onomatopoetic root the Arabic (arabic font) depicts the noise of that which explodes.

lj   TL. The sign of resistance united by contraction to the  la  symbol of every elevation, composes a root whose object is to express the effect of a thing which raises itself above another thing, covers, veils, or puts it under shelter.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains in general, all the ideas developed by the Hebraic root.

lj   That which casts a shadow, that which is projected from above below; that which varies, changes, moves like a shadow: a veil, a garment with which one is covered; a spot which changes colour; the dew which forms a veil over plants; an unweaned lamb still under the shelter of its mother.

The Arabic (arabic font) has many divers acceptations like the Hebrew, all of which can, however, be reduced to the primitive idea of a thing emanating from another, as dew, shade; metaphorically, length, duration, etc. In a restricted sense (arabic font), signifies to raise up; (arabic font) to continue.

~j   TM. Every idea of contamination, of anathema; that which is impure and profane.

The Arabic (arabic font) has lost, in general, the primitive ideas contained in the Hebraic root. In a restricted sense, this word signifies simply to throw dust.

~Wj   Action of separating as impure, of anathematizing; every kind of impurity, pollution, vice, filthiness.

!j   TN. Everything woven in a manner to form a continuous whole, as a screen, trellis, pannier, basket.

As onomatopoetic and idiomatic root, the Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font) denotes every kind of tinkling, resounding noise. It is from the idea of persistence developed by the Hebraic root, that is formed the Arabic verb (arabic font), to presume, to believe, to regard as certain.

sj   TS. Root not used in Hebrew. The Chaldaic  sj  signifies a plate of any kind whatsoever: the Arabic (arabic font) denotes very nearly that sort of receptacle called cup or bowl in English. As verb (arabic font), signifies in the vulgar idiom to put in a sack; to be settled, effaced.

[j   TOH. Every idea of obstinacy and persistence in an evil manner. This root is the analogue of the root  aj  , but more inclined toward the material sense.

[j   The tenacity, the hardness of an evil character: obstinacy.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents the same ideas as the Hebrew. The verb (arabic font) signifies literally to err, to behave badly.

~[j   (comp.) That which is attached to sensuality of taste; to sensation, to the knowledge which results: figuratively, a good or bad habit, custom: reason, judgment.

![j   (comp.) To charge, to load someone with burdens; to fix in a place, to nail: metaphorically to overwhelm.

@j   TPH. Everything which struggles, which stirs incessantly; which goes and comes without stopping; which persists in its movement.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops in a broad sense the idea of that which is impending, which can happen, occur. In a very restricted sense, (arabic font) signifies to pour out, as onomatopoetic root (arabic font), indicates the action of spitting.

@j   In a figurative sense, a child; anything whatsoever floating in the air or upon the water: a swimmer; a palm branch, etc.

#j   TTZ. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

qj   TCQ. Root not used in Hebrew.

The Arabic (arabic font), is an onomatopoetic root which depicts the noise of stones crushed beneath the feet of horses, or that of frogs croaking upon the banks of pools, or that which produces a harsh, rough utterance.

rj   TR. The sign of resistance united by contraction to the elementary root  ra  , as image of fire, forms a root which develops all ideas of purification, consecration, ordination.

The Arabic (arabic font) has lost nearly all the ideas developed by the Hebraic root; so that restricting it to physical forms, this root characterizes an abrupt, unexpected movement, a fortuitous thing, an incidence; etc.

rhj   (comp.) That which is pure, purified, purged of its impurities.

rWj   (comp.) That which is conducted with purity, with rectitude; that which maintains order; clarity.

vj   TSH. Root not used in Hebrew.

The Chaldaic expresses a change of place; to hide and take away, from sight.

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which depicts the noise of falling rain, the simmering of boiling oil, etc.

tj   TTH. Root not used in Hebrew.

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which depicts the noise of a top spinning; thence, the name of various games for children and several other related things.

 

y

 

y   I. This character is the symbol of all manifested power. It represents the hand of man, the forefinger. As grammatical sign, it is that of potential manifestation, intellectual duration, eternity. This character, remarkable in its vocal nature, loses the greater part of its faculties in becoming consonant, where it signifies only a material duration, a refraction, a sort of link as  z  , or of movement as  v

Plato gave particular attention to this vowel which he considered as assigned to the female sex and designated consequently all that which is tender and delicate.

The Hebraist grammarians who rank this character among the héémanthes, attribute to it the virtue of expressing at the beginning of words, duration and strength; but it is only a result of its power as sign.

I have shown in my Grammar what use the idiomatic genius of the Hebraic tongue made of the mother vowel  y  in the composition of compound radical verbs as initial adjunction.

Its arithmetical number is 10.

ay   IA. This root manifests the potential faculties of things.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses, as adverbial or interjective relation, all the movements of the soul which spring from admiration, astonishment, respect; o! oh! ah!

hay   That which is suitable, worthy, conformable with the nature of things, specious, decent; that which has beauty, elegance, etc.

bay   (comp.) That which desires ardently. See  bay

lay   (comp.) Every idea of proneness, inclination: that which aspires, tends toward an object. See  la

dAay   (comp.) A river. (an effluvium) See  da

by   IB. Onomatopoetic root which describes the yelping of a dog. Figuratively it is a cry, howl, vociferation.

The Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (Ibbé) signifies jubilation.

gy   IG. Every idea of fatigue, languor, sadness, as result of long continued action. See  ga

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates an overwhelming, stifling heat.

dy   ID. The sign of potential manifestation, united to the root  da  image of every emanation, of every divisional cause, forms a remarkable root, whose purpose is to produce ideas relative to the hand of man.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents exactly the same ideas as the Hebrew.

dy   In the literal and restricted sense, the hand; in the figurative and general sense, it is the faculty, executive force, power of acting, dominion: it is every kind of aid, instrument, machine, work, term; administration, liberality, faith, protection: it is the symbol of relative unity, and of the power of division; it is the margin, boarder, edge; the point by which one grasps things; it is the place, the point that one indicates, etc.

day   ( comp. ) Every idea of power and of force: that which is irresistible in good as in evil: fate, destiny, necessity.

dy   or  ddy  (intens.) Action of throwing, hurling with the hand; of issuing, sending; of spreading, divulging, etc.

hy   IEH. Absolute life manifested, Eternity, the eternally living Being: GOD.

The Arabic (arabic font) has lost all the intellectual ideas developed by the Hebraic root, but the Syriac (syriac font) and the Samaritan (samaritan font), signify alike the Absolute Being. By the word (arabic font) is understood only a sort of call.

bhy   (comp.) Action of being fruitful, manifesting fruits; a litter, a burden. Action of bearing, producing. See  ba   and  bh

dWhy   (comp.) Divine emanation, God-given: it is the name of the Jewish people, or that of Judah, from which it is derived.

Ay   IO. Every luminous manifestation; everything intelligible.

This root no longer exists in Arabic in its primitive simplicity. It is found only in the Coptic word (coptic font) to designate the moon; it is rather remarkable that the same Arabic word (arabic font) designates the sun. This last word, in receiving the guttural aspiration in (arabic font) signifies literally the day, and is used sometimes in place of (arabic font).

~Ay   (comp.) The luminous, continued, universalized manifestation: day. See  ~y

The Arabic (arabic font) has conserved none of the intellectual ideas contained in the Hebrew. As noun, it is, in a restricted sense, a day; as verb, to fix a day, to adjourn.

!Wy   (comp.) The being, passing from power into action: the manifested being. See  !Ay  . In a broader sense, the generative faculty of nature, the plastic force: in a more restricted sense, a thing indeterminate, tender, soft, easy, suitable to receive all forms; clayey, ductile land; a mire; etc.

zy   IZ. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

~zy   (comp.) To mediate, to think. See  ~z  and also the other positive roots which receive the initial adjunction  y  in large numbers.

xy   IHE. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

dxy   (comp.) Manifestation of unity; action of being united, state of being one, unique, solitary. See  dx

lxy   (comp.) Every idea of tension, attention, expectation; action of suffering, having anxiety, hoping, etc; See  lx

~xy   (comp.) Action of being heated, burned, literally and figuratively. See  ~x

@xy   (comp.) To be barefooted. See  @x

vxy   (comp.) Every idea of origin, source, race. See  vx  . It is considered here as central principle.

jy   IT. Root not used in Hebrew.

yy   II. Manifestation of all spiritual power, of all intellectual duration. In a more restricted sense, the mind.

yy   In Chaldaic, it is the name of the Eternal; that by which one finds translated the Ineffable Name  hyhy  the interpretation of which I have given in my notes. This name is often written in the Targum  yyy  the Spirit of Spirits, the Eternity of Eternities.

!yy   (comp.) Incorporated spirit: in a restricted sense, every spirituous liquor, wine.

%y   ICH. Manifestation of restriction; that is to say, the place wherein things are restricted, the side.

The Arabic does not rightfully possess this root; the Arabic words which are here attached are derived from the Persian (persian font), which signifies one.

ly   IL. Every idea of emission and of prolongation.

The Arabic (arabic font) is applied only to teeth and to their different forms.

lAy   Action of filling the air with cries; a lively song; a jubilation.

~y   IM. The sign of manifestation united to that of exterior action as collective sign, composes a root whose purpose is to indicate universal manifestation and to develop all ideas of mass and accumulation.

The intellectual force of this root is weakened in Arabic, since this idiom has not conserved the characterization of the plurality of things as in Hebrew. It is the root (arabic font), whose expression is much less forceful, which has replaced it; also, the manner of forming the plurals of nouns with numberless anomalies and irregularities, has become one of the greatest difficulties of the Arabic tongue.

~y   In a literal and restricted sense, the sea; that is to say, the universal aqueous manifestation, the mass of waters.

As noun, the Arabic (arabic font), signifies the sea, and as verb, to submerge. This word is preserved in the Coptic (coptic font), and appears not to be foreign to the Japanese umi.

~Ay   (comp.) Day; that is to say, universal luminous manifestation. See  Ay

!y   IN. The sign of manifestation united to that of individual and produced existence, composes a root whence are developed all ideas of particular manifestation and of individual being: thence the accessory ideas of particularity, individuality, property.

The Arabic (arabic font) has preserved scarcely any of the intellectual ideas developed by the Hebrew. This ancient root, however, still forms the plural of masculine nouns in Arabic, as in Chaldaic and Syriac, but it is often changed into (arabic font) following the usage of the Samaritans, and more often disappears entirely allowing this same plural to be formed in the most irregular manner.

!y   That which manifests individual sentiment, existence proper, interest: that which is relative to a determined centre, to a particular point; that which draws to itself, appropriates, envelops, involves in its vortex; deprives, oppresses others for its own interest: every internal movement, every desire for growth.

!Ay   (comp.) Generative faculty of nature, plastic force: in a restricted sense, a dove, symbol of fecundating warmth.

sy   IS. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) appears to indicate a movement of progression.

[y   IOH. Everything hollow, empty and fit to receive another, as a vessel, a shovel, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) as onomatopoetic root, depicts the cry of one who wishes to catch something, or seize it with the hand.

d[y   (comp.) Every kind of convention, appointing the day, place, time for an assembly, a fete, a resolution. See  d[

z[y   (comp.) That which is rough, steep. See  z[

j[y   (comp. ) That which covers, envelops, as a garment. See  j[

lhy   (comp.) Every thing which is raised; which grows, augments, profits. See  l[

@[y   ( comp, ) Every movement which tires, fatigues. See  @[

#[y   (comp.) Every kind of consultation, deliberation: every thing which tends to fix upon a point, to determine. See  #[

r[y   (comp.) That which surrounds, defends a thing, as the covering of the kernel, bark of the tree, skin of the body: a forest, a thicket of trees, to protect, to preserve a habitation, etc. See  r[

@y   TPH. The sign of manifestation united to that of speech, constitutes a root which is applied to all ideas of beauty, grace, charm, attraction.

The Arabic (arabic font) is only preserved in the composition of words as in (arabic font) beautiful, (arabic font) beauty, etc.

#y   ITZ. Root not used in Hebrew; but it expresses every idea of progeny and propagation in the Arabic (arabic font) which signifies to grow, in speaking of plants; in the Syriac it designates a tribe, a nation.

qy   ICQ. Every idea of obedience and subjection.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes literally that which is white.

ry   IR. Every idea of respect, of fear, of reverence, of veneration.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies a thing which is polished, smooth, without roughness, but firm, as crystal. It is also a thing of igneous nature; but in this case the Arabic word (arabic font) is applied to the root  rWa

vy   ISH. The sign of manifestation joined to that of relative movement, or by contraction with the elementary root  va  , produces a root whence come all ideas of reality, substantiality: in general, it is the substantial, effective being; in particular, an old man. This root often expresses the state of being, of appearing like, of being manifested in substance.

This root is not preserved in Arabic in its original purity; it has become onomatopoetic and idiomatic like many others; the verb (arabic font) has signified in a restricted sense, to leap, gambol, give way to joy.

ty   ITH. Root not used in Hebrew; but in Chaldaic, in the Syriac (syriac font), in the Samaritan (samaritan font), it expresses always the essence and objective nature of things. See  ta

 

 

k

 

k   CH. KH. This character as consonant, belongs to the guttural sound. As symbolic image it represents every hollow object, in general; in particular, the hand of man half closed. As grammatical sign, it is the assimilative sign, that of reflective and transient life: it is a sort of mould which receives and communicates indifferently all forms. This character is derived, as I have already said, from the aspiration  x  , which comes from the vocal principle  h  , image of absolute life; but here it joins the expression of organic character  g  , of which it is a sort of reinforcement. In Hebrew, it is the assimilative and concomitant article. Its movement in nouns and actions is similitude and analogy. The Hebraist grammarians, since they have neither included it among the heemanthes nor among the paragogics, have committed the grossest errors; they have merely regarded it as an inseparable article or an affix, and often have confused it with the word that it governs as article.

Its arithmetical number is 20.

ak   CHA. Every idea of assimilated existence, of formation by contraction; that which is compact, tightened, condensed to take some sort of form.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops, in general, the same ideas as the Hebraic root. In a restricted sense, this root is represented in English by the adverbial relations thus, the same, such as, etc. It is remarkable that this character (arabic font), as sign, fulfills in the Arabic idiom, the same functions as the Hebrew  k  . As onomatopoetic root (arabic font) expresses the clucking of the hen; metaphorically, the action of gathering together, as a hen her chickens; or again, the state of being timid, chicken-hearted.

bak   (comp.) A moral heaviness; an interior repression; every pain which is caused by a restrained and repressed desire.

hak   (comp.) Action of being repressed interiorly, of leading a sad life, restricted, afflicted, painful.

bk   OHB. Every idea of centralization ; that which draws near the centre; which gravitates there.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes in general, that which carries from above below, precipitates, pours out, throws down, sinks, goes down. As onomatopoetic root (arabic font) signifies to cut. This root used in music designates the fundamental sound, the keynote.

gk   CHG. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) seems to indicate a sort of movement executed upon itself in spiral line. In particular it is a certain game for children.

dk   CHD. That which partakes of relative unity, isolation, division. In a restricted sense a spark, a fragment.

The Chaldaic  dk  is represented in a restricted sense, by the adverbial relation when. The Arabic (arabic font) signifies in general, to act in one's own interest, to work for self; in particular, to be industrious, to intrigue, to be fatigued, tormented,

hk   CHE. Root analogous to the root  ak  , but whose expression is spiritualized and reinforced by the presence of the sign  h

hk   That which is conformable to a given model; that which coincides with a point of space or time, which can be conceived in an abstract sense, by the adverbial relations yes, thus, like this; that; in that very place; at that very time, etc.

The Arabic having lost all the ideas attached to the Hebraic root or having concentrated them in the primitive sign (arabic font) or (arabic font), has become an onomatopoetic root depicting an oppressed respiration either by old age, by illness, or by excess of drinking.

hhk   (intens.) From the idea of an excess of restriction, comes that of fright, weakness, pusillanimity: contrition; dimming of the eyes; dizziness, faintness, etc.

lhk   (comp.) Every value. See  lh

!hk   (comp.) Every administration, distinguished function; literally, priesthood, pontificate; a priest, a man raised in dignity to special supervision. See  !k

Wk   CHOU. Every assimilating, compressing, restraining force: the natural faculty which fetters the development of bodies and draws them back to their elements. Root analogous to the root  ak  , but modified by the presence of the convertible sign  W

The Arabic root (arabic font) has certainly developed the same universal ideas in the ancient idiom; but in the modern, it is restricted to characterize a sort of cauterization. The idea of combustion, of burning is expressed in particular, by the root (arabic font), and by the word (arabic font) is understood in general, that which is strong, vigorous, violent, extreme.

hWk   Action of arresting the scope of vegetation; repressing bodies, shrivelling them by burning; reducing them to ashes.

yWk   or  hywk  Combustion; that which roasts, burns; corrodes.

xWk   (comp.) That which holds to the central force; that which depends upon igneous power; that which after being centralized is unbound like a spring; in general it is the virtual faculty of the earth.

lWk   (comp.) That which seizes and agglomerates. See  la

!Wk   (comp.) See  !k

rWk   (comp.) A furnace.

vWk   (comp.) See  vk

zk   CHZ. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) indicates everything which is contracted in itself, shrivelled. In a restricted sense signifies to be disgusted.

xk   CHEH. Root not used in Hebrew. In Syriac, (syriac font) is onomatopoetic, expressing the effort made in retaining one's breath.

The Arabic (arabic font), being the reinforcement of the root (arabic font), characterizes the state of an asthmatic person, or of one worn out with old age.

dxk   (comp.) Action of retaining a thing, hiding it, concealing it carefully.

lxk   (comp.) Action of disguising a thing, smearing it.

vxk   (comp.) Action of denying a thing,

jk   CHT. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font), expresses the action of gorging with food to the point of being unable to breathe. Figuratively, it is to fill beyond measure, to overpower with work. In the modern idiom (arabic font) signifies bushy hair.

yk   CHI. Manifestation of any assimilating, compressing force. See  ak  ,  hk  , and  Wk

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies in a restricted sense, a burn.

yk   The force expressed by this root is represented in an abstract sense, by the relations that, because, for, then, when, etc.

dyk   (comp.) Everything which compresses strongly, which crowds, which presses: literally, armour; a scourge.

lyk   (comp.) That which is covetous, tenacious; a miser.

~yk   (comp.) Constellation of the Pleiades; because of the manner in which the stars cluster.

syk   (comp.) A purse filled with money; a casket.

@yk   (comp.) A rock; a thing hard and strong, of compressed substance.

%k   CHKH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Chaldaic  %k  signifies nothing more than the Hebrew  hk

The Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (cach) is an onomatopoetic root which denotes the cry of a crow.

lk   CHL. This root expresses all ideas of apprehension, shock, capacity, relative assimilation, consummation, totalization, achievement, perfection.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops in general, the same ideas of complement, totalization, as the Hebrew; but in leaving its source, it inclines rather toward the totalization of evil than toward that of good; so that in the Arabic idiom (arabic font) is taken figuratively, for excess of fatigue, height of misfortune, extreme poverty, etc. This root being reinforced by the guttural aspiration, offers in (arabic font), a meaning absolutely contrary to the primitive sense of accumulation, and designates the state of that which diminishes, which is lessened.

lk   That which is integral, entire, absolute, perfect, total, universal: that which consumes, concludes, finishes, totalizes a thing; that which renders it complete, perfect, accomplished; which comprises, contains it, in determining its accomplishment: the universality of things; their assimilation, aggregation, perfection; the desire of possessing; possession; a prison: the consumption of foods, their assimilation with the substance of the body, etc.

lWk   Action of totalizing, accomplishing, comprising, universalizing, consummating, etc.

~k   Every tension, inclination, desire for assimilation and (original French) Tout le prédispositions.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies how much. The root (arabic font), as verb, signifies to know the quantity of some thing, or to fix that quantity.

!k   CHN. This root, wherein the assimilative sign is united to the root  !a  , image of all corporeal circumscription, is related to that which enjoys a central force energetic enough to become palpable, to form a body, to acquire solidity: it is in general, the base, the point upon which things rest.

The Arabic (arabic font) has not differed from the Hebraic root in its primitive origin; but its developments have been different.

The intellectual root  hAh  to be-being, almost entirely lost in Arabic, has been replaced by the physical root  !k  ; so that in the Arabic idiom the word (arabic font) which should designate only material, corporeal existence, substance in general, signifies being. This substitution of one for another has had very grave consequences, and has served more than anything else to estrange Arabic from Hebrew.

!k   That which holds to physical reality, corporeal kind; stability, solidity, consistency; a fixed, constituted, naturalized thing: in a restricted sense, a plant: in an abstract sense, it is the adverbial relatives, yes, thus, that, then, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font), in consequence of the reasons explained above, characterizes the state of that which is, that which exists, or passes into action in nature. This root which, in Arabic, has usurped the place of the primitive root  hAh  , signifies literally it existed. It can be remarked that the Samaritan and Chaldaic follow the sense of the Hebraic root, whereas the Syriac and Ethiopic follow that of the Arabic.

!Wk   Action of constituting, disposing, fixing, grounding; action of strengthening, affirming, confirming; action of conforming, qualifying for a thing, producing according to a certain mode, designating by a name, naturalizing, etc.

sk   CHS. Every idea of accumulation, enumeration, sum.

sk   The top; the pinnacle of an edifice; a throne.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses in general, the action of removing the superficies of things; in particular, that of clipping, cutting with scissors. The onomatopoetic root (arabic font) expresses the idea of utmost exertion, and the Arabic noun (arabic font) pudendum muliebre.

sWk   Action of numbering, calculating; accumulating, carrying to the top; filling up, covering, etc.

[k   CHOH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Chaldaic indicates in an onomatopoetic manner, the sound of spitting.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops only ideas of baseness, cowardice.

s[k   (comp.) Action of being indignant, vexed; provoking, irritating another.

@k   CHPH. Every idea of curvature, concavity, inflection; of a thing capable of containing, holding: in a restricted sense, palm of the hand, sole of the foot, talons, claws of an animal, a spoon; that which curves like a sleeve, a branch: that which has capacity, like a stove, a spatula, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains exactly the same ideas as the Hebraic root. As verb, and in a figurative sense, (arabic font) signifies to preserve, defend, keep.

@Wk   Action of bending, being inflected, made concave, etc.

#k   CHTZ. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) appears to signify a sort of undulatory movement as that of water agitated. This root being doubled in (arabic font) indicates a movement extremely accelerated.

rk   CHR. The assimilative sign united to that of movement proper  r  , or by contraction with the elementary root  ra  , constitutes a root related in general, to that which is apparent, conspicuous; which serves as monument, as distinctive mark: which engraves or serves to engrave; which hollows out, which preserves the memory of things in any manner whatsoever; finally, that which grows, rises, is noticeable.

The Arabic (arabic font) has certainly developed the same general sense as the Hebraic root, in its primitive acceptation; but in a less broad sense, the Arabic root is limited to expressing the action of returning on itself, on its steps; reiterating the same movement, repeating a speech, etc.

rk   Every kind of character, mark, engraving; every distinctive object: leader of a flock, a ram; leader of an army, a captain: every kind of excavation; a furrow, ditch, trench, etc.

ryk   A round vessel, a measure.

vk   CHSH. This root is applied in general to the idea of a movement of vibration which agitates and expands the air.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally to shrivel up, to shrink in speaking of the nerves: to shorten.

vWk   (comp.} That which is of the nature of fire and communicates the same movement. Figuratively, that which is spiritual, igneous.

tk   CHTH. Every idea of retrenchment, scission, suspension, cut, schism.

tWk   Action of cutting, carving, retrenching, excluding, separating, making a schism, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents exactly the same sense in general. In particular, (arabic font) signifies to shrink; by (arabic font) is understood the action of curling the hair.





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