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To visualize the Hebrew language, written from right to left, it is necessary to have Hebrew font in your pc (bwhebb, see Homepage).


 

RADICAL VOCABULARY



 

l

 

l   L. This character as consonant, belongs to the lingual sound. As symbolic image it represents the arm of man, the wing of a bird, that which extends, raises and unfolds itself. As grammatical sign, it is expansive movement and is applied to all ideas of extension, elevation, occupation, possession. It is, in Hebrew, the directive article, as I have explained in my Grammar, expressing in nouns or actions, a movement of union, dependence, possession or coincidence.

Its arithmetical number is 30.

al   LA. This root is symbol of the line prolonged to infinity, of movement without term, of action whose duration is limitless: thence, the opposed ideas of being and nothingness, which it uses in developing the greater part of its compounds.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops the same ideas as the Hebraic root. In a restricted sense (arabic font) is represented by the negative adverbial relations no, not. The verb (arabic font) signifies literally to shine, sparkle, glisten.

al   or  aAl  It is in general, an indefinite expansion, an absence without term expressed in an abstract sense by the relations, no, not, not at all. Definite direction, that is to say, that which is restrained by means of the assimilative sign  k  , is opposed to it. See  hk  or  !k

hal   It is in general, an action without end; in its literal sense, a labour which fatigues, wearies, molests.

jal   (comp.} Action of covering, hiding. See  jl

%al   (comp.) Action of despatching, delegating. See  %l

~al   comp.) A nation. See  ~l

bl   LB. The expansive sign united by contraction to the root  ba  , image of every interior activity, every appetent, desirous, generative force, constitutes a root whence emanate all ideas of vitality, passion, vigour, courage, audacity: literally, it is the heart, and figuratively, all things which pertain to that centre of life; every quality, every faculty resulting from the unfolding of the vital principle.

bl   The heart, the centre of everything whatsoever from which life radiates; all dependent faculties: courage, force, passion, affection, desire, will; sense.

The Arabic (arabic font) participates in the same acceptations as the Hebraic root.

bWl   Action of showing force, developing vital facilities, moving with audacity, animating, making vigorous, germinating, etc.

bhl   (comp.) Ardour, flame, vital fire, literally as well as figuratively.

gl   LG. Every idea of liaison, of intimate, complicated thing; of litigation. The meaning of the Arabic (arabic font) is similar and signifies literally to insist, to contest. The Hebrew  gl  presents in the figurative, symbolic style, the measure of extent, space.

dl   LD. The expansive sign, joined to that of abundance born of division, or by contraction with the root  da  image of every emanation, composes a root whose purpose is to express every idea of propagation, of generation, of any extension whatsoever given to being.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses in general the same ideas as the Hebraic root. In a restricted sense it is, to make manifest, to put forward, to discuss. The verb (arabic font) characterizes the state of that which is relaxed, put at ease; to enjoy one's self, to delight in, etc.

dl   That which is born, generated, propagated, bred: progeny, increase of family, race, lineage: confinement, childbirth, etc.

hl   LEH. This root, analogue of the root  al  contains the idea of a direction given to life, of a movement without term.

Thence the Arabic (arabic font) which signifies properly GOD. In a more materialized sense, the word (arabic font) designates that which is refined, softened, become beautiful, pure, elegant.

hhl   Every idea of indeterminate action, of insupportable fatigue; frenzy.

bhl   comp.) Every desirous movement; every projection into vacuity: a flame of any sort whatsoever.

ghl   (comp.) Keen disposition to study, desire to learn: in a figurative sense, a system, a doctrine.

jhl   (comp) That which is inflamed, takes fire, burns for something.

~hl   (comp.) To universalize an expansive movement, to render it sympathetic; to electrify, inspire, propagate: etc.

Wl   or  yl   LOU or LI. Every idea of liaison, cohesion, tendency of objects toward each other. The universal bond. The abstract line which is conceived going from one point to another and which is represented by the relations, oh if! oh that! would to God that!

The Arabic (arabic font) has not preserved the ideas contained in the primitive root as those have which are represented by the adverbial relations if, if not, though. The verb (arabic font), which is attached to the root (arabic font) or (arabic font), signifies to make divine power shine forth, to create; to give vital movement to matter. It is to the sense of radiating which is contained in this root, that one applies the word (arabic font) a pearl.

hWl   Action of being adherent, coherent, united by mutual ties, by sympathetic movement: every adjunction, liaison, copulation, conjunction, addition, etc.

zWl   (comp.) That which cedes, gives way, bends. See  zl

xWl   (comp.) That which is polished, shining. See  xl

jWl   (comp.) To hide, envelop. See  jl

yWl   (comp.) Addition, supplement.

%Wl   (comp.) That which is detached, disunited; figuratively, that which drags, is dirty, soiled. See  %l

!Wl   (comp.) See  !l

[Wl   ( comp. ) Action of swallowing. See  [l

#Wl   (comp.) See  #l

vWl   (comp.) See  vl

zl   LZ. Every movement directed toward an object to show it, and expressed in an abstract sense by the relations this, that.

The Arabic (arabic font) has preserved the physical developments more than the Hebraic root; for one finds there all the acceptations which have relation to things coming together, their collision, clashing, etc.

xl   LH. Every movement directed toward elementary existence and making effort to produce itself, to make its appearance.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops in general, all ideas of cohesion, of contraction, and retains only the physical and material acceptations of the Hebraic root.

xl   Natural vigour; innate movement of vegetation; radical moisture: that which is verdant, young, moist, fresh; that which is glowing with youth, beauty, freshness; that which is smooth, soft to the touch; etc.

%xl   (comp.) Action of licking, sucking, polishing.

~xl   comp.) That which serves as food to elementary life: action of subsisting, of being fed: every idea of alimentation; consumption of anything whatsoever.

#xl   comp.) A hostile incursion, public misfortune, oppression. See  #l

vxl   comp. ) A magic incantation, an enchantment: a talisman. See  vl

jl   LT. The directive sign united to that of protective resistance, composes a root which contains all ideas of seclusion, envelopment, mystery, hiding place. See  jal  and  jWl

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes, in general, that which agglutinates, makes sticky, etc. The verb (arabic font) signifies properly to knead, and in the figurative sense, (arabic font) indicates the action of sullying, compromising, contaminating.

yl   LI. Root analogous to roots  al  hl  Wl

The Arabic (arabic font) designates literally a pliant, flexible thing.

lyl   (comp.) That which renders things adherent, binds, envelops them: night. See  ll

vyl   (comp.) A lion. See  vl

%l   LCH. The extensive sign united to the root  %a  image of every restriction, constitutes a root whence is developed the idea of a restrained utterance, as a determined message; executing a mission; a legation, a vicarship.

The Arabic (arabic font) has lost absolutely all the intellectual ideas developed by the Hebraic root and has preserved but few of its physical acceptations. In a restricted sense, the verb (arabic font) signifies to chew; as onomatopoetic root (arabic font) depicts the gurgle of a bottle.

%al   Every kind of legation, delegation, envoy, to fulfill any function whatsoever.

%Wl   (comp.) State of being detached, delegated, loosened, released; without bond, lawless; impious, profane, etc.

ll   LL. The sign of extensive movement being opposed to itself, composes a root which gives the idea of circular movement: in the same manner as one sees in natural philosophy, this movement springs from two opposed forces, one drawing to the centre, and the other drawing away from it.

The Arabic (arabic font) is not preserved; but one recognizes the Hebraic root in the verb (arabic font) which expresses anxiety, despair of a person tossed about.

lWl   Action of moving around, turning alternately from one side to another; rocking, winding, twisting.

lyl   (comp.) That which binds things and envelops them; night.

~l   LM. A sympathetic, mutual bond; a movement directed toward universalization.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops the same ideas as the Hebraic root but in a more physical sense. As verb, it is the action of uniting together, assembling, gathering, etc. When the word (arabic font) signifies no, it is attached to the root (arabic font) or  al

~al   A people; that is to say, a more or less considerable number of men united by common bond.

!l   LN. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) expresses every kind of colour, tint, reflection cast upon objects; that which varies, changes colour, flashes iridescent hues, etc.

In the modern idiom, the verb signifies literally to soften.

!Wl   A reflected light, a nocturnal lamp: action of watching by lamp-light, of passing the night, of taking rest (and l'action de murmurer des chants nocturnes, etc).

sl   LS. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic(arabic font) indicates the action of browsing. By the word (arabic font) is understood a thief, a robber.

[l   LOH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) appears to express in general, covetous desire, consuming ardour.

The root (arabic font) which appears to be idiomatic and onomatopoetic in Arabic, denotes the articulate or inarticulate sound emitted by the voice and modified by the tongue; thence the verb (arabic font) which signifies to speak or to bark, according to whether it is a question of man or dog. The word (arabic font) signifies literally, a speech, an idiom, etc.

[Wl   A yawning jaw, an engulfing abyss; that which swallows, absorbs, devours.

@l   LPH. Every idea of reaction, of return to itself, of refraction.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates a complication, an adjunction of several things. It is literally, the action of enveloping.

#l   LTZ. Every kind of turn, detour, turning about, sinuosity, inflection.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses in general, every kind of trickery, ruse, cheating. Literally a thief.

#Wl   Action of making light of, making a play on words; of laughing; action of turning one tongue into another, of employing an oratorical trope, etc.

ql   LCQ. In a literal sense, that which is seized by the tongue, that which is lapped, licked: figuratively, that which is seized by the mind, a lesson, a lecture, an instruction.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies to chew, and (arabic font), as onomatopoetic root denotes every kind of slapping, clapping, clicking.

qhl   From the idea of instruction springs that of doctrine; from that of doctrine, doctor. Thence, the idea of academy, of the gathering of savants, of sages, of elders, of the senate.

rl   LR. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

vl   LSH. Every union en masse, every forming, composing.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates the state of that which is agitated, shaken. The word (arabic font) characterizes one who is trembling, troubled, unsteady.

vWl   That which tends to soften, knead; to make ductile a thing which is firm and divided.

tl   LTH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) indicates a mutual union, a sympathetic bond.

 

m

 

m   M. This character as consonant, belongs to the nasal sound. As symbolic image it represents woman, mother, companion of man; that which is productive, creative. As grammatical sign, it is the maternal and female sign of exterior and passive action; placed at the beginning of words it depicts that which is local and plastic; placed at the end, it becomes the collective sign, developing the being in infinitive space, as far as its nature permits, or uniting by abstraction, in one single being all those of the same kind. In Hebrew it is the extractive or partitive article, as I have explained in my Grammar, expressing in nouns or actions that sort of movement by which a name or an action, is taken for means or instrument, is divided in its essence, or is drawn from the midst of several other similar nouns or actions.

The Hebraist grammarians whilst considering this character as héémanthes have not ceased, nevertheless, to confound it with the words which it modifies as sign, as I shall show in several important examples in my notes.

Its arithmetical number is 40.

am   MA. That which tends to the aggrandizement of its being, to its entire development; that which serves as instrument of generative power and manifests it exteriorly.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents in its original sense the same ideas as the Hebraic root; but this root has acquired in Arabic a greater number of developments than it has in Hebrew; this is why it demands in both idioms all the attention of those who wish to go back to the essence of language.

am  or (arabic font) characterizes in general, passive matter, the thing of which, with which, and by means of which, all is made. It is in particular, in the Arabic idiom, water; anything whatsoever, all or nothing, according to the manner in which it is considered. This important root, conceived as pronominal relation designates the possibility of all things, and is represented by the analogues

what and which; conceived, on the contrary, as adverbial relation, it is employed in Arabic to express the absence of every determined object and is rendered by the analogues not, no. As verb, the root (arabic font) or (arabic font) signifies in general, to go everywhere, to extend everywhere, to fill space, etc.

ham   This is, in general, that which is developed according to the extent of its faculties; in a more restricted sense it is the number one hundred.

bm   MB. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) seems to indicate an idea of return, remittance; of honour rendered.

gm   MG. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) expresses the idea of a thing which is sour, acrid, bitter, sharp; which irritates, troubles, torments. In a restricted sense the verb (arabic font) signifies to be repugnant.

dm   MD. The sign of exterior action, being united to that of elementary division, constitutes that root whence come all ideas of measure, dimension, mensuration, commensurable extent, and in a metaphorical sense, those of custom, rule, condition.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops in general, the same ideas as the Hebrew. In particular, it is that which extends, lengthens, unfolds.

dam   That which fills its measure, which has all the dimensions that it can have, which enjoys the whole extent of its faculties: in an abstract sense, much, very, exceedingly, etc.

hm   MEH. That which is essentially mobile, essentially passive and creative; the element from which everything draws its nourishment; that which the ancients regarded as the female principle of all generation, water, and which they opposed to the male principle, which they believed to be fire.

hm  ,  Am  or  ym   Every idea of mobility, fluidity, passivity; that which is tenuous and impassive, whose intimate essence remains unknown, whose faculties are relative to the active principles which develop them; in a literal and restricted sense, water, in an abstract sense who? which ? what is it? some one, something.

The Arabic (arabic font) has lost all the intellectual ideas of the Hebraic root and has substituted the root (arabic font) for all physical ideas. Today, by (arabic font), is understood only a vain futile, inane thing.

lhm   (comp.) Every kind of mixture; the fusion of several things together.

rhm   (comp.) That which passes away with rapidity, that which changes, varies easily and quickly. See  rm

wm   MOU. Analogue of the root  hm

wm   This is, in Hebrew, a passive syllable which is added to nearly all articles and to some pronouns, to give them more force and without bringing any change to their proper expression.

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which depicts in particular the mewing of a cat; by extension, every harsh, shrill sound. The Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (mowa) characterizes, in general, the action of triumphing, and that of celebrating a triumph with a fanfare.

gWm   (comp.) Action of liquifying, dissolving, melting.

xAm   (comp.) Marrow.

jAm   (comp.) Every kind of communicated movement. See  jm

%Wm   (comp.) Every idea of attenuation, depression. See  %m

lWm   (comp.) Action of amputating, cutting off exuberance, circumcising. See  lm

~Am   (comp.) Stain, vice. See  ~m

!Am   (comp.) Image, representation, figure: See  !m

rWm   (comp.) Every variation, every permutation. See  rm

vWm   (comp.) That which is contracted and rotted up in itself: See  vm

tWm   (comp.) Passing into another life, death. See  tm

zm   MZ. Every burning; combustion through the effect of refraction. Intense dazzling; reflection of the solar rays; incandescence, heat, sudden dryness.

The Arabic (arabic font) not having conserved the primitive sense of the Hebraic root, offers only particular consequences of the most general ideas, as those which spring from heat or from dryness; or from that which is sour or dried up, in speaking of liquids,

xm   MH. Onomatopoetic root which depicts the noise that is made in clapping the hands: figuratively, action of applauding; state of being joyous, of having good appearance.

xm   Clapping, applause, fullness of the body; good humour.

xm   The sign of exterior and passive action united to that of elementary labour, or to the root  xa  symbol of all equality, constitutes a root to which are attached the ideas of abolition, desuetude; of ravage carried on by time, by the action of the elements, or by man; thence,

hxm   Action of effacing, depriving, taking away, destroying; of razing a city, an edifice; of washing, cleansing, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents the same general ideas as the Hebraic root  xm  . The particular ideas are developed in the modern idiom by the derivative root (arabic font).

#xm   (comp.) Action of hurting, striking violently, wounding. See  #m

qxm   (comp.) Action of razing, scraping, taking away, removing by force, erasing, etc.

rxm   (comp.} Every idea of contingent future, of fatal, irresistible thing: in a literal sense, it is the adverbial relation tomorrow.

jm   This root, composed of the sign of exterior and passive action, united to that of resistance, develops all ideas of motion or emotion given to something; vacillation; stirring; a communicated movement especially, downward.

The Arabic (arabic font) has the same sense. As verb, this root indicates the action of drawing, stretching, extending by pulling.

jAm   Action of moving, rousing, budging, stirring, agitating; going, following, happening, arriving, etc.

ym   MI. See  hm

The Chaldaic  ym  is an indefinite pronominal relation represented by what? The Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (mai) signifies properly water.

~ym   The waters: that is to say, the mass of that which is eminently mobile, passive and suitable for elementary fecundation.

%m   MCH. The root  %a  , image of every restriction, every contraction, united to the sign of exterior and passive action, constitutes a root whence spring the ideas of attenuation, weakening, softening of a hard thing: its liquefaction; its submission.

%m   That which is attenuated, debilitated, weakened; distilled; humiliated. See  %Wm

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses in general, every idea of extenuation, absorption, consumption. By (arabic font) is understood the brain.

lm   ML. The sign of exterior and passive action. united by contraction to the root  la  , symbol of every elevation and every extent, composes a root to which is attached all ideas of continuity, plentitude, continued movement from the beginning to the end of a thing: thence, the accessory ideas of locution, elocution, eloquence, narration, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) not having preserved the intellectual ideas developed by the Hebraic root is limited to recalling that sort of physical plentitude which constitutes lassitude, ennui, dislike to work and the negligence which follows. The particular ideas expressed by the Hebrew, are found again in part, in the Arabic words (arabic font) (arabic font) (arabic font).

lm   That which is full, entirely formed; that which attained its complement: that which is continued without lacunas; every kind of locution, narration, oration; a term, an expression.

llm   (intens.) From the excess of plentitude springs the idea of exuberance and the idea of that which is announced outwardly; in a figurative sense, elocution, speech.

lWm   From the idea of exuberance comes that of amputation; thence, the action of amputating, circumcising, taking away that which is superabundant, superfluous.

~m   MM. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) seems to indicate a thing livid, or which renders livid; a thing inanimate, and as dead. Literally wax, a mummy; figuratively, solitude, a desert.

!m   MN. This root, composed of the sign of exterior and passive action, united by contraction to the root  !a  , symbol of the sphere of activity and of the circumscriptive extent of being, characterizes all specification, all classification by exterior forms; all figuration, determination, definition, qualification.

The Arabic (arabic font) has not followed the same developments as the Hebrew, although they have come from an identical root in the two idioms, as is proved by the usage of this root as designative relation represented by of, from, etc. As noun the Arabic root (arabic font) designates a thing emanated from another, a gift; as verb, it characterizes the state of that which is benign, beneficial; action of that which is deprived in order to give, to distribute; that which is weakened to reinforce, impoverished to enrich, etc.

!m   The kind of things, their exterior figure, mien, image, that is conceived; the idea, that is formed, the definition that is given to it; their proper measure, number, quota.

!Wm   Action of figuring, defining, forming an idea, an image of things: action of imagining; action of measuring, numbering, qualifying, etc.

!ym   Form, aspect of things; their mien, figure, etc.

sm   MS. Every dissolution, literally as well as figuratively: that which enervates, which takes away from physical and moral strength.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes the state of that which is touched, that which is contiguous. By (arabic font), is understood to suck; by (arabic font) to be fatigued, to lose one's strength, to be enervated.

[m   MOH. That which circulates or which causes circulation.

h[m   Inmost part; the intestines, the viscera of the body: the finances of state, money; sand, gravel, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font), which as I have already remarked in speaking of the root  am  signifies literally with, contained primitively the same sense as the Hebraic root  [m  which is alluded to here; but its developments have been somewhat different. Thus, whereas the Chaldaic  a[m  designates a thing in circulation, as a piece of money, the Arabic (arabic font). characterizes that which is uniform, unanimous, simultaneous.

j[m   (comp.) That which is moderate, exiguous, of little value, common, poor.

%[m   (comp.) Action of pressing, compressing, provoking.

l[m   (comp.) That which is tortuous; distorted, deceitful; a transgression, a prevarication.

@m   MPH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Chaldaic signifies a sort of carpet or cloth.

The Arabic verb (arabic font) signifies the condition of an idiot; a false or stupid mind.

#m   MTZ. This root characterizes that which attains an end, a finish; which encounters, finds, obtains the desired object.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies properly to suck.

##m   (intens.) Action of milking, that is to say, of obtaining milk: thence, the idea of pressure, expression; pressing etc.

qm   MCQ. That which is founded, literally as well as figuratively. The action of being melted, liquefied; growing faint, vanishing.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses the state of that which experiences a sentiment of tenderness, which covers, shelters, loves, etc.

rm   MR. The sign of exterior and passive action being united to that of movement proper, constitutes a root whose purpose is to characterize that which gives way to its impulsion, which extends itself, usurps or invades space; but when this same sign is linked by contraction to the root  ra   symbol of elementary principle, then the root which results is applied to all the modifications of this same element.

The Arabic (arabic font) contained primitively the same ideas as the Hebraic root. In the modern idiom this root is limited to two principal acceptations; the first is applied to the action of passing, exceeding, going beyond; the second, to the state of being bitter, strong, sturdy.

rm   That which extending and rising, affects the empire, the dominion; as a potentate: that which exceeds the limits of one's authority; as a tyrant, a rebel: that which is attached to the idea of elementary principle, as an atom, a drop.

rrm   (intens.) That which is exaggerated in its movement, in its quality: literally, that which is sour, bitter, ferocious.

ram   (comp.) That which gnaws, which corrodes; literally and figuratively.

ram   or  rAam   (comp.) Thai which shines, lightens, heats.

rhm   (comp.) That which changes, varies, passes, flows off rapidly.

rWm   or  rym   (comp.) Change, variation, mutation.

vm   MSH. From the union of the sign of exterior activity with that of relative movement, or by contraction with the elementary root  va  springs a root whose purpose is to express that which is stirred by contractile movement.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies properly to feel, touch softly, brush lightly.

vm   Everything palpable, compact, gathered: every pile, as a crop, a harvest. That which is drawn, extracted, shrunken, as silk etc.

(  מש  . MSH. De la réunion du signe de l'activité extérieure à celui du mouvement relatif, où par contraction à la R. élémentaire אש , naît une racine dont l'objet est d'exprimer tout ce qui se meut d'un movement contractile, se retire en soi, se touche, se met en masse.

L'ar. مش signifie proprement palper, toucher mollement, frotter légèrement.

מש . Toute chose palpable, compacte, ramassée : tout amas, comme la récolte, la moisson. Tout ce qui se tire, s'extrait, se retire, comme la soie, etc.)

tm   MTH. If one considers this root as composed of the sign of exterior action, united to that of reciprocity, or this same sign joined by contraction to the root  ta  image of the ipseity, the selfsameness of things, it will express either a sympathetic movement, or a transition; a return to universal seity or sameness. Thence the idea of the passing of life; of death.

 

The Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font), has lost all the intellectual ideas contained in the Hebrew. Today it is only extension or physical expansion, a sort of flux of any thing whatever. (arabic font) indicates dissolution of being, and (arabic font) signifies death. The verb (arabic font) characterizes that which is dead, dissolved, deprived of existence proper.

tWm   Action of passing away, of passing into another life, of dying: state of being dead; death.

 

n

 

n   This character as consonant, belongs to the nasal sound; as symbolic image it represents the son of man, every produced and particular being. As grammatical sign, it is that of individual and produced existence. When it is placed at the end of words it becomes the augmentative sign  !  , and gives to the being every extension of which it is individually susceptible. The Hebraist grammarians in placing this character among the heemanthes, had certainly observed that it expressed, at the beginning of words, passive action, folded within itself, and when it appeared at the end, unfoldment and augmentation: but they had profited little by this observation.

I shall not repeat here what I have said in my Grammar concerning the use that the idiomatic genius of the Hebraic tongue made of this character in the composition of compound radical verbs, as initial adjunction.

Its arithmetical number is 50.

an   NA. Every idea of youth, newness; every idea of freshness, grace, beauty; every idea springing from that which is formed of a new production, of a being young and graceful.

The Arabic (arabic font) although holding to the same primitive root as the Hebrew, has developed, however, ideas apparently opposed: this is the reason. That which is new, of recent birth, is graceful, fresh, pleasing; but it is also frail, weak, unsteady. Now, the Hebraic idiom is attached to the first idea; the Arabic idiom has followed and developed the second. Thence the verb (arabic font), which indicates the state of that which is frail, feeble, impotent; the verb (arabic font), expresses the action of letting go, being separated, abandoning a thing, etc. What proves the identity of the root is that the compound verb (arabic font) signifies literally to nurse an infant.

han   That which is beautiful, lovable, new, young, fresh; which is not worn out, fatigued, peevish; but, on the contrary, that which is new, tender, pretty, comely.

aAn   From the idea of youth and childhood comes the idea of that which has not attained its point of perfection, which is not sufficiently ripe, in speaking of fruit; not sufficiently cooked, in speaking of meat; thence, the action of acting abruptly, without reflection, contradicting like a child, leading without experience, being new, unaccustomed to something, acting impetuously.

dan   (comp.) A leather bottle, for holding water, milk or any liquor whatsoever.

~an   (comp.) Action of exposing the substance or source of something; speaking the truth, going back to the cause. See  ~a

@an   (comp.) Action of giving way to a passion, to an impulse; to commit adultery; to apostatize, to worship strange gods. See  @a

#an   (comp.) Action of passing the limits, going too far; the action of spitting. See  #a

ran   (comp.) Action of being execrable, abominable. See  rra

tan   (comp.) Every idea of clamour, lamentation.

bn   NB. The mysterious root  bAa  being united by contraction to the sign of produced existence, gives rise to a new root, whence emanate all ideas of divine inspiration, theophany, prophecy; and in consequence, that of exaltation, ecstasy, rapture; perturbation, religious horror.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates in general, a shudder; exterior movement caused by interior passion. As onomatopoetic and idiomatic root (arabic font) denotes the sudden cry of a man or animal keenly roused. Literally, the bark of a dog. Figuratively (arabic font) and (arabic font) express the action of one who announces the will of heaven, who prophecies.

The Hebrew word  aybn  , prophet, is formed of the root  bn  here alluded to, and the root  ay  , symbol of divine power.

bWn   Action of speaking by inspiration; producing exteriorly the spirit with which one is filled: in a literal and restricted sense, divulgation, fructification, germination.

In this last sense, it is the root  ba  which is united simply to the sign  n  employed as initial adjunction.

gn   NG. This root is applied to every kind of reflected light, after the manner of a mirror; of solar refraction: thence, the ideas of opposition, of an object put on the opposite side.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates every idea of liquid emission, watery emanation.

ghn   Action of leading by taking possession of the will of some one; of inducing, deducing, suggesting ideas; action of giving or receiving an impulse, opinion, etc.

dn   ND. From the union of the signs of produced existence and natural division, springs a root which develops all ideas of dispersion, uncertain movement, agitation, flight, exile, trouble, dissension.

The Arabic (arabic font) develops the idea of that which evaporates, is exhaled, escapes. This word is applied also in Arabic to the idea of equality, similitude; then it is compound and derived from the primitive  dy  contracted with the sign of produced existence  n

dWn   That which is moved, stirred, by a principle of trouble and incertitude; that which is wandering, agitated; that which goes away, flees, emigrates, etc.

dyn   An agitation, a trembling, a disturbance manifested by movement.

hn   NHE. This root is the analogue of the root  an  and as it, characterizes that which is fresh, young, recent: thence;

hWn   State of being young, alert, vigorous, pleasing; in consequence, action of forming a colony, founding a new habitation, establishing one's flock elsewhere, etc.

hn   Onomatopoetic root which describes the long moaning of a person who weeps, suffers, sobs.

The Arabic (arabic font) depicts every kind of noise, clamour.

wn   NOU. The convertible sign  w  image of the bond which unites being and nothingness, which communicates from one nature to another, being joined to that of produced existence, produces a root whose sense, entirely vague and indeterminate is fixed only by means of the terminative sign by which it is accompanied.

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic and idiomatic root which depicts the aversion that one experiences in doing a thing, the disgust that it inspires. As verb, it is the action of being repugnant, of refusing, of being unwilling.

hWn   (comp.) Every idea of a new dwelling. See  hn

xWn   (comp.} The point of equilibrium where an agitated thing finds repose: action of resting, remaining tranquil, enjoying peace and calm. See  xn

jWn   (comp.) Every kind of bond.

~Wn   (comp.) Action of sleeping.

!Wn   (comp.) Every idea of propagation or growth of family. See  !n

sWn   (comp.) Action of wavering in uncertainty, erring, fleeing. See  sn

[Wn   (comp.) That which changes, that which lacks constancy and force, literally as well as figuratively.

@Wn   (comp.) Dispersion, aspersion, distillation: action of winnowing, scattering; of ventilating, etc.

#Wn   (comp.) Action of flourishing, that of flying; being resplendent. See  #n

qWn   (comp.) Every pure, beneficial, nourishing fluid; milk; action of suckling, nursing an infant.

rWn   (comp.) A luminous production, eclat, splendour. See  rn

vWn   (comp.) That which is unstable, weak, infirm.

zn   NZ. This root characterizes that which overflows, spreads, disperses; that which makes its influence felt outwardly.

The Arabic (arabic font) has the same sense. It is literally, the action of flowing, passing away.

zzn   (intens.) From excess of dispersion springs the idea of the breaking of that which is solid; the distillation of that which is liquid.

xn   NH. If one considers this root as formed of the united signs of produced existence and elementary existence, it implies a movement which leads toward an end: if one considers it as formed of the same sign of produced existence united by contraction to the root  xa  image of all equilibratory force, it furnishes the idea of that perfect repose which results for a thing long time agitated contrarily, and the point of equilibrium which it attains where it dwells immobile. Thence,

xn   In the first case, and in a restricted sense, a guide: in the second case, and in a general sense, the repose of existence. See  xWn

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which depicts a moan, a profound sigh; thence, all ideas of lamentation, of plaint. The intellectual ideas developed by the Hebraic root are nearly all lost in the Arabic. Nevertheless one still finds in the modern idiom the verb (arabic font) signifying to stoop, to kneel. The compound word (arabic font), indicates sometimes patience, tenacity.

lxn   (comp.) That which is extended with effort, which is divided, separated: a valley hollowed out by a torrent: a share of inheritance: the sinuosity of a running stream; taking possession, any usurpation whatsoever.

~xn   (comp.) That which ceases entirely, desists from a sentiment, renounces completely a care, surrenders an opinion, calms a pain, consoles, etc.

#xn   (comp.) Every idea of urgency, haste, importunity. See  #n

rxn   (comp.) See  rn

vxn   ( comp. ) See  vn

txn   (comp.) See  tn

jn   NT. The sign of produced existence united to that of resistance and protection, forms a root whence emanate all ideas of nutation, inflection, inclination, liason, literally as well as figuratively, thence,

jn   Every kind of off-shoot, tendril, reed suitable to braid, tie, plait: a thing which twines, grows upon another, is bound, tied to it; as a twig, branch, stick; a sceptre; a mat, a bed; etc. See  jWn

The Arabic (arabic font) has not preserved the ideas developed by the Hebrew, or rather the Arabic root being formed in another manner has expressed a different sense. In general, the verb (arabic font) characterizes that which makes effort to separate itself from the point at which it is arrested; in particular, it is to jump, to escape, to be emancipated. By (arabic font) or (arabic font) is understood the state of a thing suspended, separated from the point toward which it inclines. The Chaldaic  xjn  signifies properly eccentric.

yn   NI. Root analogous to the roots  an  ,  hn  and  Wn whose expression it manifests.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates the state of that which is raw.

!yn   (comp.) An offspring, a son. See  !n

ryn   (comp.) Light manifested in its production, splendour. See  rn

%n   NCH. That which is injurious to existence, arrests, restrains, represses it.

%n   A blow, a lesion; chastisement, torment: action of rebuking, chastising, treating harshly, punishing; bruising, striking, sacrificing; etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents in general the same ideas as the Hebrew. Is it the same with the Syriac (syriac font).

ln   NL. Every idea of suite, series, sequence, consequence: every idea of abundant succession, of effusion holding to the same source. The Arabic words (arabic font), (arabic font), (arabic font) all present the sense of succeeding, following in great number, furnishing, giving, rendering abundantly.

~n   NM. Individual existence represented by the sign  n  being universalized by the adjunction of the collective sign  ~  forms a root whence is developed the idea of sleep. This hieroglyphic composition is worthy of closest attention. One is inclined to believe that the natural philosophy of the ancient Egyptians regarded sleep as a sort of universalization of the particular being. See  ~Wd  and  ~Wn

The Arabic (arabic font) only participates in the Hebraic root in the case where the verb (arabic font) signifies to exhale, to spread out, in speaking of odours; for when it expresses the action of spreading rumours, cursing, calumniating, it results from another formation. Besides it can be remarked that nearly all the roots which are composed of the sign  n  are in the same case; and this, for the reason shown in the grammar, with regard to this sign when it has become initial adjunction.

!n   NN. The sign of individual and produced existence, being united to itself as augmentative sign, constitutes a root whose use is to characterize the continuity of existence by generation. It is a new production which emanates from an older production to form a continuous chain of individuals of the same species.

The Arabic (arabic font) has not preserved the ideas developed by the Hebraic root. It can only be remarked that (arabic font) is one of the names which has been given to Venus, that is to say, to the generative faculty of nature.

!Wn   That which is propagated abundantly, that which spreads and swarms; in a restricted sense, the specie of fish; action of abounding, increasing.

!yn   Every new progeny added to the older, every extension of lineage, family, race. See  yn

sn   NS. Every idea of vacillation, agitation, literally as well as figuratively: that which wavers, which renders uncertain, wavering.

sn   In a restricted sense, a flag, an ensign, the sail of a ship: in a broader sense, a movement of irresolution, uncertainty; from the idea of flag develops that of putting in evidence, raising: from the idea of irresolution, that of tempting, of temptation.

The Arabic (arabic font) has only an onomatopoetic root which describes the noise of a thing floating, as water; consequently, characterizing literally, that which imitates the movement of waves; figuratively, that which is given over to such a movement.

[n   NH. This root expresses the idea of everything weak, soft, feeble, without consistency. The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally an herb fresh and tender. In a more extended sense, it is every idea of movement within oneself, vacillation, trepidation, oscillation.

[Wn   That which is weak, without strength; that which is variable; which changes, vacillates, totters; which goes from one side to another: it is, in a broader sense, the impulse given to a thing to stir and draw it from its torpor.

~[n   (camp.) That which is easy, pleasant, convenient, agreeable.

r[n   (comp.) In a restricted sense, a new born infant: in a figurative sense, the primary impulse given to vital element.

@n   NPH. Every idea of dispersion, ramification, effusion, inspiration; of movement operated inwardly from without, or outwardly from within: distillation if the object is liquid, a scattering if the object is solid. See  @Wn

The Arabic (arabic font) has in general, the same ideas. In particular, it is, in the modern idiom, the action of snuffing: blowing the nose.

#n   NTZ. That which reaches its term, end, extreme point: that which is raised as high and spreads as far as it can be, according to its nature.

The Arabic (arabic font) does not differ from the Hebrew in the radical sense. In a restricted sense one understands by the verb (arabic font), the action of giving a theme, furnishing authority, confirming, demonstrating by text, by argument, etc.

#n   The end of every germination, the flower, and the action of blossoming; the term of all organic effort, the feather, and the action of flying; the end of all desire; splendour, and the action of being resplendent, gleaming, shining. See  #Wn

#cn   (intens.) From the idea of attaining to the highest point, comes that of flying; from that of flying, that of vulture and every bird of prey; from this latter, taken in the figurative and intensive sense, that of ravaging, devastating, wrangling over plunder, stealing, robbing; etc.

qn   NCQ. This root, which contains the idea of void, is applied metaphorically to that which is related to this idea: thence  qn  , every hollow, cavernous place; every excavated space: an innocent being, one without vice, without evil thought; that which is free from all stain, impurity; which is purified, absolved; fair, white. In a figurative and restricted sense, milk; the nursling which sucks, an infant. See  qWn

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which depicts every kind of deep, raucous, sound, like the grunting of a pig, cawing of a crow, etc.

rn   NR. The root  rAa  , united by contraction to the sign of produced existence, constitutes a root whose purpose is to characterize that which propagates light, literally as well as figuratively: thence,

rn   lamp, a beacon, a torch: a sage, a guide; that which enlightens, shines, is radiant: metaphorically, a public festivity, an extreme gladness. See  rWn   and  ryn

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally, fire.

vn   NSH. This root which is applied to the idea of things temporal and transient, in general, expresses their instability, infirmity, decrepitude, caducity: it characterizes that which is feeble and weak, easy to seduce, variable, transitory; literally as well as figuratively.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes in particular, the absorption of water by the earth; in the modern idiom it signifies, to whisk flies.

vn   Every idea of mutation, permutation, subtraction, distraction, cheating, deception, weakness, wrong, etc.

tn   NTH. Every corporeal division. In a restricted sense, a member.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes extension given to anything whatsoever. The verb (arabic font) expresses literally, the action of oozing through, of perspiring.

tn   A morsel of something, a piece, a portion; a section: action of parcelling out, of dissecting, etc.

 

s

 

s   S. This character as consonant, belongs to the sibilant sound, and is applied as onomatopoeia to depicting all sibilant noises: certain observant writers among whom I include Bacon, have conceived this letter S, as the symbol of the consonantal principle, in the same manner that they conceived the letter  h  , or the aspiration H, as that of the vocal principle. This character is, in Hebrew, the image of the bow whose cord hisses in the hands of man. As grammatical sign, it is that of circular movement in that which is related to the circumferential limit of any sphere.

Its arithmetical number is 60.

as   SA. Every idea of circumference, tour, circuit, rotundity.

has   Every round thing suitable for containing anything; as a sack, a bag. In a figurative sense, it is the action of emigrating, changing the place, taking one's bag.

The Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font), designates that which disturbs, harms.

!as   (comp.) Covering for the feet, sandals.

bs   SB. When this root is conceived as the product of the circumferential sign united to that of interior action  b  , it expresses every idea of occasional force, cause, reason: but when it is the root  ba  , image of every conceivable fructification, joined by contraction to this same sign, then this root is applied to that which surrounds, circumscribes, envelops.

The Arabic (arabic font) contains in general all the acceptations of the Hebraic root; but inclining toward those which are more particularized in a physical sense than in a moral one.

bs   Every kind of contour, circuit, girdle; a circumstance, an occasion, a cause.

The Arabic (arabic font) has the same sense; but the primitive root (arabic font) having deviated toward the physical, signifies to distort a thing, to take the wrong side; to curse someone, to injure him, etc.

bs   and  bbs  (intens.) Action of turning, going round, circuiting, enveloping, circumventing, warning, converting, perverting, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies to put a thing upside down; to pour out, upset.

gs   SG. The circumferential sign united to the organic sign, constitutes a root whose purpose is to depict the effect of the circumferential line opening more and more, and departing from the centre: thence,

gs   All ideas of extension, augmentation, growth: physical possibility. See  gWs  and  gys

The Arabic (arabic font) offers in general, the same sense as the Hebrew.

ds   SD. This root whose effect is opposed to that of the preceding one, characterizes, on the contrary, the circumferential line entering upon itself, and approaching the centre: thence,

ds   All ideas of repression, retention, closing.

The Arabic (arabic font) has not separated from the Hebrew in the radical sense. As verb it is literally the action of closing. It must be remarked that the verb (arabic font) which signifies to master, to dominate, is attached to the root  dy  , (arabic font) which indicates properly the hand, and the power of which it is the emblem.

hs   SEH. Root analogous to  as

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates the circumference of the buttocks: the rump.

rhs   That which is round of form: a tower, a dome; the moon; a necklace; bracelets, etc.

Ws   SOU. Root analogous to  as  and  hs

The Arabic (arabic font) does not differ from the Hebrew as to the radical sense; but the developments of this root being applied in Arabic, to the idea of what is bent rather than to what is round, characterizes consequently, that which is bad rather than that which is good: thence the verbs (arabic font) or (arabic font) which express the state of what is bent, false, malicious, traitorous, depraved, corrupt, etc.

hWs   A veil, a garment which surrounds, envelops, undulates.

gWs   (comp.) Action of being extended by going away from the centre; yielding; offering a facility, a possibility.

dWs   (comp.) Action of welding; closing, shutting; that which is secret, closed, covered.

%Ws   (comp.) Action of anointing. See  %s

!Ws   (comp.) That which shines, that which renders joyous. See  !s

sWs   (comp.) A horse. See  ss

@Ws   (comp.) That which finishes a thing; makes an end of it; to sweep away; to fulfill. See  @s

rWs   (comp.) That which turns around, bends, is perverted, changes sides, is made adverse; that which is audacious, independent; that which is raised, bred, trained, turned, given a proper outline, directed etc. See  rs

tWs   (comp.) Action of working in the shadow of something, of being covered with a veil, of seducing, persuading, etc. See  ts

zs   SZ. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

xs   SH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) expresses the action of being dissolved in water, of being poured out, spread over, etc. The Chaldaic  xWs  signifies to swim; to wash, to be purified in water: the Syriac and Samaritan have the same sense.

hxs   Action of cleansing, washing.

yxs   Every idea of cleansing.

@xs   (comp.) Every idea of subversion, sweeping away; a torrent.

rxs   (comp.) Every idea of the circulation of produce, of merchandise; action of negotiating, selling, buying, etc.

vxs   ( comp.) That which springs from corruption: that which swarms from putrid water.

js   ST. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes in general, a vehement, illegal action. The compound verb (arabic font) signifies literally to command with arrogance, to act like a despot.

ys   SI. Root analogous to  hs  and  Ws  . The Arabic (arabic font) coming from the radical idea taken in a good sense, characterizes that which is regular, equal; that which is made in accordance with its own nature: thus the verb (arabic font) or (arabic font) has reference to milk which flows without being drawn.

gys   (comp.) An extension: a thing which has yielded, which has gone away from the centre. In a restricted sense, scoria. See  gs

rys   (comp.) Curvature. See  rs

%s   SCH. The circumferential sign united by contraction of the root  %a  , image of every restriction and exception, forms a root whose use is to characterize a thing which is round, closed, fitting to contain, to cover; thence,

%s   A sack, veil, covering of any sort: that which envelops, covers, obstructs. In a figurative sense, the multitude of men which cover the earth; ointment with which the skin is covered and which closes the pores. See  %Ws

The Arabic (arabic font) has preserved few of the expressions which hold to the radical sense. Its principle developments spring from the onomatopoetic root (arabic font) which depicts the effect of the effort that one makes in striking. Literally it is striking a thing to make it yield.

ls   SL. Every kind of movement which raises, exalts, takes away, ravishes.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies in a restricted sense, to draw to one's self.

ls   In a very restricted sense, a leap, a gambol; in a broad and figurative sense, the esteem or value that is put upon things. Also a heap of anything; a thing formed of many others raised one upon another, as a mound of earth, etc.

~s   SM. The circumferential sign being universalized by the collective sign  ~  , becomes the symbol of the olfactory sphere, of every fragrant influence given to the air: thence,

~s   Every kind of aromatic.

The Arabic (arabic font) appears to have preserved more of the developments and even more of the radical force than the Hebraic analogue. This root characterizes that which is penetrated with force whether good or evil. Thence, in the modern idiom the verb (arabic font), which signifies to bore a hole, to pierce.

!s   SN. The circumferential sign having attained its greatest dimension by the addition of the augmentative sign,  !  , becomes the symbol of the visual sphere and of all luminous influence: thence,

!s   Every kind of light, of bright colour, in general; in particular the colour red, as the most striking. This colour, taken in a bad sense, as being that of blood, has furnished the idea of rage and rancour in the Chaldaic  ags  ; but the Syriac has only a luminous effect, as is proved by the word (syriac font) which signifies the moon. The Hebrew has drawn from it the name of the most brilliant month of the year,  !Ays  the month of May. See  !Ws

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes that which illumines things and gives them form by shaping, polishing them; in the modern idiom the verb (arabic font) signifies to sharpen.

ss   SS. The circumferential sign being added to itself, constitutes a root which denotes in an intensive manner every eccentric movement tending to increase a circle and give it a more extended diameter: thence, every idea of going away from the centre, of emigration, travel: thence,

sws   A horse; that is to say an animal which aids in emigration, travel. See  as  and  [s

The Arabic (arabic font) belongs evidently to the primitive root  ss  , and designates in general, a thing which is carried from the centre to the circumference, to administer, to govern.

[s   SH. That which is rapid, audacious, vehement, fitted for the race; thence,

h[s   A courier, a thing which rushes; figuratively an arrogant person, a calumniator.

The Syriac (syriac font) has the same sense as the Hebrew.

The Arabic (arabic font) appears to have deviated much from the radical sense. It is literally, a straw; but figuratively, it is that which makes the subject of a deliberation.

d[s   (comp.) That which serves for support, prop, corroboration. See  ds

@[s   (comp.) That which is extended by branching out; a genealogy; a series.

r[s   (comp.) A violent, tumultuous movement; a tempest, a storm.

@s   SPH. Every idea of summit, end, finish; anything which terminates, consummates, achieves.

@s   The extremity of a thing, the point where it ceases; its achievement, consummation, end: the defection, the want of this thing: the border, top, summit, threshold; that which commences or terminates a thing; that which is added for its perfection: also, reiteration of the same action, an addition, supplement; the final thing where many others come to an end: a time involving many actions.

The Arabic (arabic font) has preserved of the radical sense only the idea of a thing reduced to powder, which is taken as medicine. The Syriac (syriac font) characterizes every kind of consummation, of reducing to powder by fire.

@ps   (intens.) Action of approaching, drawing near, touching the threshold, receiving hospitality.

#s   STZ. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

qs   SCQ. Root not used in Hebrew. The Samaritan (samaritan font), likewise the Syriac (syriac font), indicate a movement of evasion, of leaving; of germination.

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which designates the action of striking.

rs   SR. The circumferential sign joined to that of movement proper, constitutes a root whence issue all ideas of disorder, perversion, contortion, apostasy; also those of force, audacity, return, education, new direction, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) offers in general, the same radical character as the Hebrew but its developments differ quite obviously. The verb (arabic font) signifies in particular, to be diverted; that is to say, turned from serious occupations.

rs  and  rrs  (comp.) That which is disordered, rebellious, refractory; which leaves its sphere to cause trouble, discord; that which is vehement, audacious, independent, strong: that which distorts, turns aside takes another direction; is corrected, etc. See  rWs

vs   SSH. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

ts   STH. Every kind of mutual, sympathetic covering, every kind of veil, of darkness. The Arabic (arabic font) indicates the parts of the human body that must be veiled. The Hebrew, as well as the Chaldaic  Wts  , characterizes winter, the dark season when nature is covered with a veil. See  tWs

 

[

 

[   U.H.WH. This character should be considered under the double relation of vowel and consonant. Following its vocal acceptation, it represents the interior of the ear of man, and becomes the symbol of confused, dull, inappreciable noises; deep sounds without harmony. Following its consonantal acceptation, it belongs to the guttural sound and represents the cavity of the chest. Under both relations as grammatical sign, it is in general, that of material sense, image of void and nothingness. As vowel, it is the sign  W  , considered in its purely physical relations: as consonant, it is the sign of that which is crooked, false, perverse and bad.

Its arithmetical number is 70.

a[   HA. Physical reality. This root is the analogue of the roots  h[  and  W[

b[   HB. The sign of material sense united by contraction to the root  ba  , symbol of all covetous desire and all fructification, constitutes a root which hieroglyphically characterizes the material centre: it is, in a less general sense, that which is condensed, thickened; which becomes heavy and dark.

The Arabic (arabic font), signifies properly to charge with a burden; by (arabic font), is understood to finish, to draw to an end, to become putrid.

b[   Every idea of density, darkness; a cloud, a thick vapour; a plank, a joist.

bW[   Action of being condensed, thickened, of becoming palpable, cloudy, sombre, opaque; etc. See  bWa  of which  bW[  is the degeneration and intensifying.

g[   HG. Every kind or ardour, desire, vehement fire, which increases constantly; every active warmth, as much literally as figuratively.

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic and idiomatic root which characterizes a violent noise; the roaring of winds and waves. (arabic font) depicts also in an onomatopoetic manner the noise made by water when drunk or swallowed.

gW[   In a restricted sense, the action of baking; that which has been exposed to the heat of a hot oven, a cake, etc.

d[   HD. The sign of material sense, contracted with the root  da  , symbol of relative unity, image of every emanation and every division, constitutes a very important root which, hieroglyphically, develops the idea of time, and of all things temporal, sentient, transitory. Symbolically and figuratively it is worldly voluptuousness, sensual pleasure in opposition to spiritual pleasure; in a more restricted sense, every limited period, every periodic return.

The Arabic (arabic font), which is related in general, to the radical sense of the Hebrew, signifies in particular, to count, number, calculate, etc.; the word (arabic font), the time which follows the actual time; tomorrow.

d[   The actual time; a fixed point in time or space expressed by the relations to, until, near: a same state continued, a temporal duration, expressed in like manner by, now, while, still; a periodic return as a month; a thing constant, certain, evident, palpable, by which one can give testimony; a witness.

d[  or  dd[  (intens.) Continued time furnishes the idea of eternity, stability, constancy; thence, the action of enacting, constituting, stating, etc. [ Original text in French: d[  ou  dd[  . (R. intens.) Le temps continué fournit l'idée de l'éternité, de la stabilité et de la consistance de là, découle l'action de statuer, de constituer, de poser, etc.]

dW[   Action of returning periodically furnishes the idea of evidence, certitude; action of returning unceasingly, furnishes the idea of accumulation; that of accumulation, the ideas of riches, plunder, prey; thence, the action of despoiling: now these latter ideas, being linked with those of sentient pleasures contained in the primitive idea of time, produce all those of voluptuousness, sensuality, delights, beauty, grace, adornment, etc.

h[   ,  W[  HEH, HOU. That which is sentient in general; obvious to the senses: physical reality. Superficies, the exterior form of things. Their growth, material development.

The Arabic (arabic font) has not preserved the intellectual ideas developed by the Hebraic root. It is today, only an onomatopoetic root depicting a sentiment of self-sufficiency, pride, (arabic font), signifies literally to bark.

hW[   Every inflection, every circumferential form; every kind of curvature, inversion, circle, cycle; everything concave or convex. In a figurative sense perversion, iniquity; state of being perverse, iniquitous, deceitful, vicious.

zW[   (comp.) Action of fleeing for refuge to any person or place.

jW[   (comp.) Action of making an irruption.

lW[   (comp.) To act with duplicity, hypocrisy; to be curved as a dais, a yoke, foliage, etc. See  l[

!W[   (comp.) Action of being joined corporeally; cohabiting. See  ![

@W[   (comp.) Action of being raised, sustained in the air, flying; as vapour, winged fowl or bird, etc. See  @[

#W[   (comp.) Action of consolidating; strengthening. See  #[

qW[   (comp.) Action of compressing. See  q[

rW[   (comp.) Action of impassioning, exciting, putting into movement: action of involving, blinding, etc. See  r[

vW[   (comp.) Action of assembling, composing, putting together. See  v[

tW[   ( comp. ) Action of communicating a movement of perversion, of perverting. See  t[

z[   HUZ. Every idea of sentient, material force, of physical demonstration: that which is strong; corroborative auxiliary.

z[   This is, in general, a thing which is strengthened by being doubled, by being added to itself. Every body which is hard, rough, firm, persistent, as a stone, rock, fortress: that which enjoys great, generative vigour, as a goat; that which is vigorous, audacious; that which serves as prop, support, lining, substitute; that which corroborates, strengthens, encourages, etc. See  zW[

The Arabic (arabic font) while diverted very slightly from the radical sense of the Hebraic root has, however, acquired a great number of developments which are foreign to the Hebrew. Thus the root (arabic font) characterizes that which is precious, dear, rare, worthy of honour; that which is cherished, honoured, sought after, etc. The verb (arabic font), signifies properly to pierce.

x[   HUH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Samaritan (samaritan font) indicates in general, material substance, and in particular, wood.

j[   HUTH. This root develops the idea of resistance overcome by physical means.

j[   A notch, a cut, made upon a thing: a stylus, a chisel for inscribing, engraving; every kind of incision, line, cleft. See  jW[

The Arabic (arabic font) offers the same sense as the Hebrew. (arabic font) signifies to wear out in speaking of clothes; (arabic font) to plunge into the water.

y[   HI. This root is the analogue of the roots  h[  and  W[  , whose physical expression it manifests. It is, in general, growth, material development; accumulation.

The Arabic (arabic font) indicates an overwhelming burden, a fatigue; (arabic font) signifies to goad.

jy[   (comp.) Action of cleaving the air with rapidity, swooping down upon something: literally, a bird of prey.

~y[   (comp.) That which tends to be united, to amalgamate strongly; a violent desire, keen sympathy; thirst. See  ~[

!y[   (comp.) Corporeal manifestation; the eye. See  ![

@y[   (comp.) That which manifests a thing which is volatile, dry, inflammable, arid; thence, that which languishes for lack of humidity. See  @[

ry[   (comp.) That which manifests a physical impulsion, a general attraction; a common centre of activity, a supervision: as a city, fort, rampart, body-guard. See  r[

%[   HUCH. Root not used in Hebrew. In composition it has the sense of the Arabic (arabic font), which characterizes that which is held with effort, which delays, defers, etc.

In a restricted sense (arabic font) signifies to soil, to stain.

l[   HUL. The material sign  [  considered under its vocal relation, being united to that of expansive movement, composes a root which characterizes, hieroglyphically and figuratively, primal matter, its extensive force, its vegetation, its development in space, its elementary energy: this same sign, considered as consonant changes the expression of the root which it constitutes, to the point of making it represent only ideas of crime, fraud, perversity.

The Arabic (arabic font) has lost nearly all the intellectual ideas characterized by the Hebraic root. In a restricted sense (arabic font) signifies to give up to physical relaxation, to grow weak, to become effeminate, to be made sick, and the verb (arabic font), the formation of seed in the plant.

l[   Material extent; its progression, its indefinite extension, expressed by the relations toward, by, for, on account of, notwithstanding, according to, etc. Its aggregative power, its growth by juxtaposition, expressed by upon, over, above, along with, near, adjoining, about, overhead, beyond, etc.

l[   or  ll[  (intens.) That which grows, extends, rises, mounts; that which is high, eminent, superior; the aggregated, superficial part of anything whatsoever: that which constitutes the form, the factor, the exterior appearance; the labour of things; an extension, a heap; etc.

lW[   Every kind of material development; that which is raised above another thing: a foetus in the womb of the mother, an infant at the breast; a leaf upon the tree; every manner of acting conformable to matter; every appearance, every superficies as much literally as figuratively; the state of being double, false, hypocritical, etc. See  hW[

~[   HUM. Matter universalized by its faculties: tendency of its parts one toward another; the force which makes them gravitate toward the general mass, which brings them to aggregation, accumulation, conjunction; the force whose unknown cause is expressed, by the relations with, toward, among, at.

~[   Every idea of union, junction, conjunction, nearness: a bond, a people, a corporation.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents in general the same sense as the Hebrew. As a verb, it is the action of generalizing, of making common. By (arabic font) is understood a painful condition, a sorrow, an uneasiness, etc.

~m[   (intens.) Every union in great number; a multitude: action of gathering, covering, hiding, obscuring, heating by piling up. See  ~y[

![   HUN. Material void embodied, made heavy, obscure, dark. In considering here the root  W[  , image of every superficies, every inflection, united by contraction to the augmentative sign  !  , one sees easily an entire inflection: if this inflection is convex, it is a circle, a globe; if it is a concave, it is a hole, a recess.

![  and  !n[  (intens.) A space, a gloomy air, a thick vapour, a cloud.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies in general, to appear, to be obvious to the senses, to be shown under a material form. In an abstract sense, it is a designative relation represented by from.

!W[   Action of darkening, of thickening vapours, of gathering clouds; action of forming a body; of inhabiting, cohabiting; the idea of a corporation, troop, corps, people, association; of a temporal dwelling; the idea of every corruption attached to the body and to bodily acts; vice: that which is evil; that which afflicts, humiliates, affects; in a restricted sense a burden; a crushing occupation; poverty, etc.

!y[   From the idea attached to the manifestation of bodies, comes that of the eye, and of everything which is related thereunto. In a metaphorical sense, a source, a fountain, etc. See  !W[  and  !y[

![   Onomatopoetic root expressing a deep breath, either in lamenting, groaning or crying; thence,

![   A cry, clamour, evocation, response; a keen tightness of breath, suffocation, oppression, literally as well as figuratively.

s[   HUS. This root, little used, expresses the action of pressing, of trampling under foot.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses the action of feeling, groping; also that of roving, going about without a purpose, etc.

[[   HUH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) indicates everything which bends and turns.

@[   HUPH. This root, considered as a compound of the sign of material sense, united to that of interior activity, has only the idea of obscurity and darkness; but its greatest usage is onomatopoetic to depict movements which are easy, agile, light, swift.

The Chaldaic  @p[  signifies properly to blow the fire; to light it and make it burn; the Arabic (arabic font), with this idea, characterizes the state of that which has passed through the fire, which is pure, spotless, without vice, innocent; which abstains from all evil, etc.

@[   (onom.) That which rises, expands, opens out into the air; that which soars, flies, etc. See  @W[  and  @y[

#[   HUTZ. Determined matter offered to the senses according to any mode of existence whatsoever.

#[   Hieroglyphically, substance in general; in the literal or figurative sense, vegetable substance, and the physical faculty of vegetation: in a very restricted sense, wood, a tree: that which is consolidated and hardened, which appears under a constant and determined form. See  #W[

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes, in general, the root of things, their radical origin. In a less extended sense it is that which serves as point of support; that which is solid, firm, valid. When this root is reinforced by the guttural inflection in (arabic font), it is applied to that which is oppressive by nature; which molests, vexes, mystifies; it is, in a restricted sense, the action of causing indigestion; an obstruction, a lump in the throat. By (arabic font) is understood the action of biting, and by (arabic font), that of making defective.

q[   HUGH. Every idea of extreme condensation, of contraction with itself, of hardness; figuratively, anguish. See  qW[

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes the idea of that which is refractory, that which being pushed, repels; that which disobeys, etc. As onomatopoetic root (arabic font) expresses the flight and cry of the crow, the noise made by waves breaking, etc.

r[   HUR. This root should be carefully distinguished under two different relations. Under the first, it is the root  W[  image of physical reality and symbol of the exterior form of things which is united to the sign of movement proper  r  ; under the second, it is the sign of material sense united by contraction to the root  rAa  , image of light, and forming with it a perfect contrast: thence, first:

r[   Passion, in general; an inner ardour, vehement, covetous; an irresistible impulse; a rage, disorder; an exciting fire literally as well as figuratively. Secondly:

r[   Blindness, loss of light or intelligence, literally as well as figuratively; absolute want, destitution, under all possible relations; nakedness, sterility, physically and morally. In a restricted sense, the naked skin, the earth, arid and without verdure: a desert.

The Arabic (arabic font) preserved almost none of the intellectual ideas developed by the Hebraic root. One recognizes, however, the primitive sense of this important root even in the modern idiom, where (arabic font) signifies to dishonour, contaminate, cover with dirt, and (arabic font), to deceive by false appearances, to lead into error, to delude; etc.

rr[   (intens.) The highest degree of excitement in the fire of passions; the most complete privation of anything whatsoever.

rA[   Action of inflaming the fire of passions, depriving of physical and moral light. Here the primitive root  r[  , confounding its two relations by means of the convertible sign  W  , presents a mass of mixed expressions. It is the action of awaking, exciting, stirring; of renouncing, depriving one's self, being stripped naked, of watching, superintending, guarding; of drawing away, misleading: it is a nude body, a skin; a guard house, a dark cavern; a city, etc. See  rW[  and  ry[

v[   HUSH. Every idea of conformation by aggregation of parts, or in consequence of an intelligent movement, of combination or plan formed in advance by the will: thence,

v[   A work, a composition; a creation, a fiction, a labour of any sort, a thing; action of doing in general. See  vW[

The Arabic (arabic font) has lost the radical sense, and instead of a formation in general, is restricted to designating a particular formation, as that of a nest, garment, etc. (arabic font) signifies to commit fraud, falsification; to feign, dissimulate, etc.

t[   HUTH. That which takes all forms, which has only relative existence, which is inflected by sympathy, reaction, reciprocity. The product of material sense, time; that is to say the moment when one feels, expressed by the adverbial relations now, already, at once, incontinent, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally to prey upon, to wear out, to ruin; which is a result of the lost radical meaning. (arabic font), or (arabic font) signifies that which preys upon the mind, as care, sorrow, alarm, sad news, etc.

 

p

 

p   P.PH. This character as consonant, belongs to the labial sound, and possesses two distinct articulations: by the first P, it is joined to the character  b  or B, of which it is a reinforcement; by the second PH, it is joined to the character  W  become consonant and pronounced V or F. As symbolic image it represents the mouth of man, whose most beautiful attribute it depicts, that of uttering his thoughts. As grammatical sign, it is that of speech, and of that which is related thereunto. The Hebrew does not employ it as article; but everything proves that many of the Egyptians used it in this way and thus confounded it with its analogue  b  , by a peculiar affectation of the pronunciation. Perhaps also a certain dialect admitted it at the head of words as emphatic article in place of the relation  hp  ; this appears all the more probable, since in Hebrew, a fairly large quantity of words exist where it remains such, as I shall remark in my notes.

Its arithmetical number is 80.

ap   PHA. That which is the most apparent of a thing, the part which first strikes the sight.

ap   The face of things in general; in a more restricted sense, the mouth, the beak; that of which one speaks with emphasis, that which is made noticeable.

In Arabic this root displays its force in (arabic font) mouth, and in (arabic font) to speak. The verb (arabic font) characterizes literally, that which opens, separates, as the mouth.

dap   (comp.) Every kind of ornament, glory, palms. See  dp

bp   PHB. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

gp   PHG. That which extends afar, which wanders, is extended, loses its strength, its heat.

The Arabic (arabic font) has nearly the same sense. As noun, it is every kind of crudeness, unripeness; as verb, it is the action of separating, opening, disjoining, etc.

gWp   Action of being cool, freezing; of losing movement.

dp   PHD. Every idea of enlargement, liberation, redemption. The Arabic (arabic font) signifies to raise the voice, to show one's self generous, magnificent, arrogant.

The meaning of the Hebraic root is found in the compound (arabic font) which signifies literally to deliver.

hp   PHEH. This root is the analogue of the root  ap  ; but in Hebrew particularly, it emphasizes the thing that one wishes to distinguish in time or in a fixed place; as in that very place, right here, this, that, these.

hp   In a literal sense, mouth, breath, voice, in a figurative sense, speech, eloquence, oratorical inspiration: that which presents an opening, as the mouth; which constitutes

part of a thing, as a mouthful; which follows a mode, a course, as speech.

The Arabic (arabic font) has in general, the same sense as the Hebrew.

Wp   PHOU. This root is the analogue of the roots  ap  and  hp  but its expression is more onomatopoetic in describing the breath which comes from the mouth.

The Arabic (arabic font) is not far removed from the radical sense of the Hebrew.

hWp   (comp.) Action of blowing. See  hp

!Wp   (comp.) Action of hesitating. See  !p

#Wp   (comp.) Action of spreading, dispersing, melting. See  #p

qWp   (comp.) Action of being moved by an alternating movement. See  qp

rWp   (comp.) That which bursts forth, shines out, appears. See  rp

vWp   (comp.) That which spreads abundantly, which overflows. See  vp

zp   PHZ. That which throws flashes, gleams, rays: which is sharply reflected: thence,

zp   Purest gold; keenest joy; a topaz.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes the movement of that which rises quickly, spurts up, leaps, struggles, etc.

zWp   Action of emitting sperm.

xp   PHEH. Everything which is drawn in, expanded, as the breath; all that which is unfolded in order to envelop and seize, as a net; thence,

hxp   Every idea of administration, administrator, state, government.

The Arabic (arabic font) constitutes an onomatopoetic and idiomatic root which describes every kind of hissing of the voice, snoring, strong respiration, rattling. When this root is strengthened in (arabic font) it signifies literally, an ambush; a trap.

xWp   Action of inhaling, expiring; respiring, blowing; action of inspiring, communicating one's will, governing.

zxp   (comp.) Every idea of breath, of lightness, of unstable thing.

txp   (comp.) A yawn, an hiatus, a hole.

jp   PHT. An opening, a pit; a dilation; a prorogation given to something.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally, to crumble; (arabic font) to rise, leap. From the latter word is formed (arabic font) which characterizes that which acts abruptly, with cruelty, etc.

jp   Action of opening the mouth, yawning; figuratively, the action of crying, chattering, ranting, etc.

yp   PHI. This root is the analogue of the two roots  ap  and  hp  but its expression is more manifest.

hyp   A beak; the orifice of anything; the prominent part, an angle; a discourse, and particularly, a message.

The Arabic (arabic font) departs from the Hebraic root and instead of developing the primitive (arabic font) the mouth, from the moral stand point; it develops it from the physical, characterizing that which is interior and opposed to the surface of things. The root conceived abstractly, is represented by the adverbial relations, in, into, within. As noun, it designates the shadowy part of the body, the umbra; as verb, it signifies to darken, to shade.

dyp   (comp.) Ruin, disaster.

xyp   ( comp. ) Soot.

%p   PHCH. Every distillation which comes from vapour suddenly condensed: a drop of water; metaphorically, a lens.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally to be dissolved.

lp   PHL. The emphatic sign, united by contraction to the root  la  , symbol of every elevation, constitutes a root which develops all ideas of distinction, privilege, choice, election, setting aside: thence,

lp   Some thing wonderful, precious, which is considered a mystery: a miracle: a distinguished, privileged man whom one reveres; a noble, a magistrate; that which is set aside, hidden in all fruits, the germ; literally, a bean.

The Arabic (arabic font) has not preserved the moral ideas developed by the Hebrew. This root, inclining toward the physical sense, is limited to expressing that which is separated, extracted, drawn from another thing: that which is divided into distinct parts. In the modern idiom (arabic font) signifies literally to drive away.

llp   (intens.) From the idea of noble and magistrate, springs that of dominion, power: thence, the action of judging others, rendering justice, governing, etc.

~p   PHM. Root not used in Hebrew. The Chaldaic  ~Wp  signifies mouth; the Arabic (arabic font) has exactly the same sense. As verb (arabic font), is to bake bread, to cook; in general, that which is related to food for the mouth.

!p   PHN. The face of anything whatsoever, the front of a thing, that which is presented first to the view: that which strikes, astonishes, frightens: every idea of presence, conversion, consideration, observation, etc.

!p   The aspect of a person, his countenance, face, mien, air, sad or serene, mild or irritated: action of turning the face, expressed by the relations before, in the presence of, from before, etc. Action causing the face to turn, expressed by beware! no! lest! for fear of! etc. That which imposes by its aspect: a prince, a leader; a star, a ruby, a tower, etc. That which is the cause of disturbance, of hesitation. See  !Wp

The Arabic (arabic font) has evidently the same primitive idea which has produced the Hebraic root; but although starting from the same principle, its developments have been different; they have inclined rather toward the physical than toward the moral, as can be remarked in general, of other roots. Thus, from the primitive idea deduced from the exterior face which things present, from their manner of being phenomenal, the Arabic idiom has drawn the secondary ideas of complication and of complicating; of mixture and of mixing; of variety and of varying; of specification and of specifying; of classification and of classifying; so that finally, considering as general, what had been particular, this same root (arabic font) is used to designate an art, or a science of some sort, because it is by means of arts and sciences that one can class all things and examine them under their aspects.

sp   PHS. That which comprises only a portion of the circumference or totality of a thing.

sp   A part, a face, a phase. Action of diminishing, of breaking into pieces.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally to examine minutely.

[p   PHUH. Onomatopoetic root which depicts the cry of an animal with yawning jaws. Figuratively, a clamour; metaphorically, a diffusion.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes the call of the shepherds.

l[p   (comp.) Every kind of act, work, action. See  lp

~[p   (comp.) Every kind of agitation, movement, impulse: literally, the feet. See  ~p

![p   (comp.) Every kind of augury, observation, phenomenon. See  !p

r[p   (comp.) Every kind of distention, relaxation, action of depriving, stripping, making naked, etc. See  r[

#p   PHTZ. Every idea of diffusion, loosening, setting forth, giving liberty. See  #Wp

The Arabic (arabic font) presents the same sense in general. In a restricted sense (arabic font) signifies to examine minutely, and (arabic font) to break the seal.

qp   PHCQ. That which opens and shuts; which is stirred by an alternating movement back and forth; that which is intermittent, inquisitive, exploratory, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) has in general the same ideas as the Hebrew. As verb, this root expresses particularly the action of releasing, opening, dilating, etc.

qp  and  qqp  (intens.) Action of passing from one place to another, being carried here and there, going and coming; action of obstructing, standing in the way, etc. See  qWp

rp   PHR. The emphatic sign replacing the sign of interior activity  b   and united to that of movement proper  r  , constitutes a root which develops all ideas of fructification, production, elementary generation.

rp   Any progeny, any produce whatsoever; the young of any animal, particularly of the cow. That which is fertile, fecund, productive.

The Arabic (arabic font), being applied principally to developing in the Hebraic  rp  the idea which had relation to the young of a weak timid animal, has characterized the action of fleeing; the flight, the fear which makes one give way; also the growth of teeth, dentition; the examination that is made of the teeth of an animal to discover its age, its strength, its weakness, etc.

hrp   Action of producing, bearing.

xrp   That which vegetates, germinates, swarms: a seed, a flower.

yrp   Fruit; figuratively an effect, a consequence.

Wrp   or  [rp  Onomatopoetic root which describes the noise of a thing which cleaves the air, or strikes it with a violent movement.

%rp   (comp.) Every abrupt movement which breaks, bruises.

~rp   (comp.) To rend a garment.

srp   (comp.) That which breaks; that which divides in breaking.

#rp   (comp.) Action of breaking into many pieces; reducing to powder.

qrp   (comp.) That which tears, draws forcibly from a place, breaks the bonds, sets at liberty.

vrp   (comp.) Action of dispersing, divulging, manifesting, specifying; action of piercing: metaphorically, a hunter, a horseman.

vp   PHSH. Every idea of pride, vanity, extravagance; of inflation, literally as well as figuratively. That which seeks to extend, to put itself in evidence. See  vWp

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic and idiomatic root which depicts the noise made by the air when escaping from the place where it has been confined, as when it comes from a bladder which has been pressed; thence, if one considers the bladder, the sense of letting out the air; if the air which escapes is considered, the same sense of doing a thing with vivacity, arrogance, passion, etc.

tp   PHTH. Every idea of dilation, extending easily, allowing to be penetrated, opened; every divisibility, every opening; space, extent: thence,

tp   Space in general, or any space in particular; that which is indifferent in itself, impassive; metaphorically, a fop, a fool, a silly person, a simpleton: action of persuading, deceiving; etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) preserves the radical sense of the Hebrew, without having the same developments. As verb, it is the action of scattering, spreading here and there, tearing into small pieces, etc.

 

c

 

c   TZ. This character as consonant, belongs to the hissing sound, and describes as onomatopoeia, all objects which have relations with the air and wind. As symbolic image, it represents the refuge of man, and the end toward which he tends. It is the final and terminative sign, having reference to scission, limit, solution, end. Placed at the beginning of words it indicates the movement which carries toward the limit of which it is the sign; placed at the end, it marks the very limit where it has tended.

Its arithmetical number is 90.

ac   TZA. The final sign  c  , as initial and united to that of power, characterizes in this root, that which leaves material limits, breaks the shackles of the body, matures, grows; is born exteriorly.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses with much energy the effort made by the young of animals to open their eyes.

!ac   (comp.) Flocks and herds; in a broader sense, a productive faculty.

aWc   Onomatopoetic root expressing a movement of disgust and repulsion at the sight of a filthy object.

aWc   Every kind of filth, obscenity, excrement.

bc   TZB. Every idea of concourse, of crowd; that which rises, swells, stands in the way; that which serves as a dike; that which is conducted and unfolded according to fixed rules.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes in general, that which flows after the manner of fluids; metaphorically, that which follows a determined inclination, which obeys an impulse. (arabic font) expresses every kind of emanation in general; that which belongs to, that which results from, another thing. In a very restricted sense (arabic font) signifies a species of lizard.

bc   An army, a military ordnance; a general order observed by a mass of individuals, discipline: thence, honour, glory, renown. Metaphorically the host of stars, the harmony which regulates their movements.

gc   TZG. Root not used in Hebrew. The Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (tzagg) signifies to publish. The Arabic (arabic font) indicate the noise made by iron striking upon iron. (arabic font) signifies a tumult; an uproar.

dc   TZD. That which is insidious, artful, double, sly, opposed, adverse, deceitful, seductive.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents in general, the same sense as the Hebrew; that is to say, every idea of opposition, defense. (arabic font) expresses the state of quarreling, disputing.

dc   In a literal sense, very restricted, the side; in a broad and figurative sense, a secret, dissimulating hindrance; an artifice, a snare.

dWc   Action of setting snares; hunting, fishing, ensnaring birds; deceiving.

hc   TZEH. Root analogous to the root  ac  and develops the same ideas.

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which characterizes the action of one who imposes silence; it is represented by the interjective relations, hist! hush! This root being reinforced at the end in (arabic font) designates literally silence.

lhc   (comp.} To neigh.

rhc   (comp.) Luminous ray; the splendour of midday. See  rc

Wc   TZOU. This very important root characterizes every kind of line drawn toward an end, of which the sign is symbol. It develops every idea of order, command, direction, impressed by the primum mobile.

The Arabic (arabic font) has departed much from the radical sense of the Hebrew, of which it has retained only certain physical developments. Thus (arabic font) expresses a sort of natural humectation; and (arabic font), the impression which light causes upon the organ of sight. As onomatopoetic root (arabic font) denotes the sound of the voice.

hWc   A law, an ordinance; an order, a command; that which leads to an end: a precept, a statute, a maxim of conduct: action of ordering, directing, leading; impressing a movement.

hWc   (comp.) To cry aloud.

lWc   (comp.) A thing which is propagated afar, as noise; depth, literally and figuratively. See  lc

~Wc   (comp.) To fast. See  ~c

[Wc   (comp.) To blossom. See  [c

@Wc   (comp.) To overflow. See  @c

qWc   (comp.) That which presses; holds back forcibly. See  qc

rWc   (comp.) That which compresses, forms, conforms. See  rc

tWc   (comp.) To set on fire, to kindle. See  tc

zc   TZZ. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

As onomatopoetic root (arabic font) characterizes the inarticulate sounds emitted from closed jaws. Figuratively it is to champ the bit.

xc   TZEH. That which is dry, arid, exposed to the rays of the sun. That which is clear, serene, radiant.

The Arabic (arabic font) offers in general, the same sense as the Hebraic root and adds much to the developments of the moral side. In the Arabic idiom, it is the state of that which is sane, upright, pure, true, clean, rectified, etc. The verb (arabic font) characterizes that which shines on accountof its purity.

hxc   State of being exposed to the rays of the sun, being thirsty, dry, etc.

jc   TZT. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) designates a strong man, a formidable adversary.

yc   TZI. Root analogous to the root  ac  and  hc  but develops the same idea with greater intensity.

(arabic font) expresses a sort of lotion, libation, aqueous emanation. (arabic font) signifies literally brightness, every kind of luminous effusion.

hyc   Every place exposed to the rays of the sun, and made dry and glaring.

dyc   (comp.) Every opposition which springs from artifice. See  dc

%c   TZCH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which depicts the noise made by two flat stones rubbed together to crush anything whatsoever.

lc   TZL. This root, composed of the final sign united to the directive sign, characterizes a thing whose effect is spread afar. This thing expresses, according to the genius of the Hebraic tongue, either noise, or shadow passing through air and void; or void itself, containing darkness: thence,

lc   Every noise that is striking, clear, piercing like that of brass; every shadow carried, projected a great distance into space; every obscure depth, whose bottom is unknown: metaphorically, a screaming voice; any kind of object extending overhead and making a shade as a canopy, dais, covering, roof, veil; every deep, obscure place, a cavern. See  lWc

The Arabic (arabic font) has evidently the same radical sense as the Hebrew  lc  , but this root, besides its primitive sense, having also an onomatopoetic sense, has received developments much more extended. According to the first sense, the verb (arabic font) characterizes the state of that which grows dark, being corrupted, of that which imitates the darkness of shadow, which lengthens, gains, as a shadow, etc. According to the second sense, it is a prolonged sound, a cry which invokes succour, a prayer, etc. (arabic font) expresses that which is prolonged indefinitely, wanders, disappears, etc.

~c   TZM. That which is carried with avidity, with force, toward a thing; that which covets or seizes eagerly.

The Arabic (arabic font) has the same radical sense as the Hebrew. As verb, it is the action of obstructing, opposing forcibly the egress of anything whatsoever; state of being deaf, stupid, etc. (arabic font) expresses that which is strongly united; an aggregation, an agglomeration, a mass.

~c   Thirst.

~mc   A knot, a braid, an indissoluble bond: thence,

~Wc   Action of fasting.

!c   TZN. That which conserves, preserves, puts in safety.

!c   A dwelling where one gathers for shelter; a shield, an urn, a basket; any sort of defensive weapon, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes that which being shut up becomes warm and smells badly; figuratively, it is concentrated anger, rancour. (arabic font) is the state of that which is sordid, tenacious, avaricious.

sc   TZS. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

[c   TZUH. This root, analogous to the roots  ac  ,  hc  ,  yc  develops the same ideas of tendency toward a determined end; but adds to it the particular expression of the root Wc  , image of all material development: thence,

[c   Every kind of machine, automaton; anything acting like clock work: that which is wandering, irresolute, running to and fro, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents the same sense as the Hebrew and characterizes in particular, that which is supple, flabby, ungainly, slack, etc. As onomatopoetic root (arabic font) denotes silence, and the verb (arabic font), the action of bringing to uniformity that which tends to be dispersed.

@c   TZPH. Every idea of diffusion, profusion, overflowing; that which flows like water; which follows a steady incline.

The Arabic (arabic font) in departing from this last idea, develops the action of putting in order, arranging, co-ordinating, instructing, etc., and (arabic font), to put together, to assemble.

@Wc   Action of flowing, following the course of water, swimming, floating.

#c   TZTZ. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) expresses the cry of small birds, by an imitative noise.

qc   TZCQ. Every noise, every sudden clamour.

The Arabic (arabic font) expresses clapping the hands. In the modern idiom (arabic font), indicates consent given by a hand clasp: an engagement, a note.

rc   TZR. If this root is considered as composed of the final sign united by contraction to the elementary root  ra  , one perceives all universal ideas of form, formation, co-ordination, elementary configuration: but if it is considered as result of the union of the same final sign with that of movement proper, one perceives only the idea of a tight grasp, an oppression, an extreme compression.

Thence,

rWc   Every formation by the sole co-ordination of the elements, by their own aggregation, or by their artificial liaison and their limitation to a model; every creation, fiction, picture, image, exemplar: action of forming, conforming, modeling, figuring, painting, etc

rWc   Every compression by effect of an exterior movement which pushes, which presses the elementary parts upon each other toward a common point: that which obliges, forces, oppresses, obsesses, besieges, presses upon, acts in a hostile manner; a violent adversary, enemy, competitor, rival: that which causes anguish, suffering: the point of a sword, the steepness of a rock, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally, to press, draw closer, link, knit, twist, pack, etc., and (arabic font) the action of injuring, wounding, offending, etc.

raWc   (comp.) That which holds to corporeal forms: in a restricted sense, the neck.

ryc   That which serves as bond: the vertebrae; the muscular and bony ligatures: the hinges of a door which fasten it to the wall: the ambassadors of a king; a legation, etc.

vc   TZSH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (tzoush) expresses that which is tortuous, bandy-legged, counterfeit.

tc   TZTH. Every impulse given toward the same end; every communicated movement; as is expressed by the Arabic (arabic font).

tWc   A conflagration; the action of setting fire.

 

q

 

q   KQ. This character as consonant, belongs to the guttural sound. As symbolic image it represents a trenchant weapon, that which serves as instrument for man, to defend, to make an effort for him. It has already been remarked, that nearly all the words which hold to this consonant in the greater part of the idioms, designate force and constraint. It is, in the Hebraic tongue, the compressive and decisive sign; that of agglomerative or repressive force. It is the character  k  entirely materialized; the progression of the sign is as follows:  h  , vocal principle, sign of absolute life:  x  , aspirate principle, sign of elementary existence:  g  , guttural principle, organic sign:  k  , same principle strengthened, sign of assimilated existence holding to forms alone:  q  , same principle greatly

strengthened, sign of mechanical, material existence giving the means of forms.

Its arithmetical number is 100.

aq   CA, KA or QUA. This is the analogous root of  Wq  which characterizes the expression of the sign. As onomatopoetic root it is a convulsive and violent effort; to spue out, to vomit forth.

The Arabic (arabic font) which takes the place of the primitive root, reinforces all its acceptations. As onomatopoetic root (arabic font) depicts the croaking of a crow.

aAq   Action of vomiting.

ayq   Vomit.

bq   KB. The onomatopoetic root  aq  , united by contraction to the sign of interior activity  b  , expresses all rejection, expurgation. Literally, it is an excavation; figuratively, an anathema, a malediction.

But if one considers here the figure  q  , as being contracted with the root  ba  , then the root  bq  characterizes every object capable of and containing any kind of measure: literally, genitalia muliebra; figuratively, a bad place.

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic and idiomatic root expressing every effort that one makes to cut, carve, sharpen. It characterizes, in general, that which retrenches or is retrenched; thence, the idea of a prince, a magistrate; of any man or any thing which operates a line of demarcation. (arabic font) designates again, the principal sound of the musical system, the keynote. See  ~b

gq   KG. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

dq   KD. The vertical point, pole, summit, of anything whatsoever; the pivot, motive, point upon which all bears, turns.

The Arabic (arabic font) has evidently the primitive sense of the Hebraic root but develops, however, other acceptations. It is, in general, a line of demarcation, fissure, notch; in particular, it is the figure of anything whatsoever, the corporeal proportion, etc.

dWq   In a restricted sense, action of inclining the head.

hq   KEH. This root is the analogue of  Wq  , to which one can refer for the real meaning of the sign. As onomatopoetic root it expresses the sudden cry which is given to frighten, to astound, put to flight. See  aq

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which depicts a sudden and immoderate burst of laughter.

hhq   State of being frightened, by an unforeseen noise, stunned, stupefied.

lhq   ( comp.) A call to gather the cattle.

Wq   COU, KOU or QUOU. This root, as well as its analogues  aq  or  hq  , when they are not onomatopoetic, designate in general, that which is indefinite, vague, indeterminate, unformed: it is matter suitable to be put in action, the mechanical movement which acts upon it; the obtuse, vague, blind but irresistible force which leads it; necessity.

Wq   The mathematical line and that which represents it: a level, a rule, a clew; that which holds irresistibly to a point; metaphorically desire, hope; figuratively, sound, echo.

The Arabic (arabic font) is no longer used in its radical form, but one finds a great number of its derivatives, all of which hold more or less closely to the Hebraic root; such as (arabic font) obedience, and in general, every proper, analogous thing; (arabic font) force, valour, virtue; (arabic font) faculty, power, etc. This onomatopoetic root (arabic font), depicts as in Hebrew a resounding, prolonged sound, like that of the hunter's horn.

hWq   Action of stretching, being carried toward an object, desiring, becoming, mingling with, being formed of it. That which is obtuse; that which acts without intelligence; that which, like an echo, repeats the voice or sound, without seizing or keeping it.

xWq   (comp.) Action of reaching out, making effort to seize something. See  xq

jWq   (comp.) Action of being disgusted. (L'action d'être rebuté sur quelque chose) See  jq

lWq   (comp.) Voice, sound. See  lq

~Wq   (comp.) Substance in general. See  ~q

!Wq   (comp.) Lamentation. See  !q

@Wq   (comp.) An ape. See  @q

#Wq   (comp.) Action of cutting, cutting off; pricking. See  #q

rWq   (comp.) Action of digging a well, a snare; action of surrounding, catching, destroying, etc. See  rq

vWq   (comp.) A snare; action of entangling, setting a trap. See  vq

zq   KZ. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) indicates every kind of leap, assault; impetuous movement to overpower a thing. In the modern idiom, the verb (arabic font) signifies to weave.

xq   KEH. The idea of an effort that is made toward a thing to seize it to comprehend it. See  xwq

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes that which is pure, frank, sincere.

jq   KT. This root develops the idea of resistance opposed to that of tension, of extension: thence in a very broad sense, the Occident; in a very restricted sense, a stick. See  jq

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic and idiomatic root which depicts every kind of cut made without effort, as with a knife, etc. This root employed as adverbial relation is represented by only, only so much, so little.

yq   KI or QUI. This root is the analogue of the roots  hq  and  Wq  ,whose power it manifests.

The Arabic signifies according to the radical sense, an arid, desert land; according to the onomatopoetic sense, to vomit.

!yq   (comp.) A lance.

ryq   (comp.) Wall of circumvallation, enclosure, fortified precinct. See  rq

%q   KCH. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

lq   KL. The root  Wq  , image of that which is undefined, vague, unformed, united by contraction to the directive sign  l  , produces a root which designates that which is deprived of consistency and form; sound, voice, wind: but, if this same root is conceived as formed by the union of the compressive sign  q  , with the root  la  image of all elevation and all superior force, it expresses then the action of roasting, parching, etc.

lq   Every idea of lightness, rapidity, velocity: that which is attenuated, slender, thin: without consistency; of little value; vile, cowardly, infamous.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents the same radical sense as the Hebrew; but, as verb, it is in particular, that which becomes less; which is reduced, lightened; which loses ground; becomes rarefied, etc.

lAq   Voice, sound. The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally, to say, speak, state, express.

~Wq   KM. The root  Wq  , being universalized by the addition of the collective sign, characterizes substance in general, undefined nature; a thing whose only properties are extent and necessity: thence,

~Wq   Action of existing in substance, being substantialized; assuming stability; state of being extended, established; constituted; strengthened; qualified to assume all forms; action of being spread out; rising into space. Action of existing, subsisting, consisting, persisting, resisting: that which is necessary, real; rigid, irresistible: that which is opposed, is raised against another thing, shows itself refractory, inflexible, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) has preserved none of the intellectual ideas developed by the Hebraic root. As verb, (arabic font) expresses the action of taking away the superficies of things, making them dry, clean, etc. In particular, it is the action of sweeping. The radical sense of the Hebrew is developed by the Arabic (arabic font).

~yq   Every idea of manifest opposition, insurrection: that which is adverse, rebellious; matter in travail.

!q   KN. This root has two sources whose expressions are blended, as it were, in one. By the first, it is derived from the root  Wq  , image of the blind force which moves matter, united to the augmentative sign  !  ; by the second, it springs from the compressive sign  q  , contracted with the root  !a  , symbol of all corporeal circumscription; thence,

!q   That which tends with ardour toward a thing; that which is envious, usurping, vehement, covetous of gain and possession; thence,

!q   That which is centralized, concentrated in itself.

From these two roots  !yq  is formed, in which are assembled the opposed ideas, of appetent tension and compression, vehemence and closeness, power and density. It contains the central force, profound basis, rule and measure of things; also the faculty which seizes, usurps, agglomerates, appropriates and assimilates with itself.

The Arabic (arabic font) although holding to the same root as the Hebrew  !q  , is however, far from preserving or developing so great a number of ideas. Nearly all of those which were intellectual have become lost. The verb (arabic font), which partakes most of the radical sense, signifies literally to forge the iron, to strike it while it is hot; to solder metals, to unite them by means of the forge (arabic font) is a blacksmith.

!q   or  !nq  (intens.) In a literal and restricted sense a nest, a centre; a cane, a measure, a reed; an abode, a possession, an acquisition, conquest; a possessor, envious person, rival; envy, hatred, jealousy; an affair, property, wealth, etc.

sq   KS. Every idea of hazard, fatality, chance, etc. The Arabic (arabic font) expresses the kind of jealousy that one feels when the thing that one desires is possessed by another.

[q   KH. Every idea of line strongly traced, of stigma; of violent disordered movement which wounds, displaces, deranges, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) is an onomatopoetic root which depicts the sound of the voice made by one who drives away a troublesome animal. Figuratively, all that which repels; a strong bitterness; briny, brackish water.

@q   KPH. Every idea of condensation, concretion; that which is coagulated, congealed, thickened, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents the same radical sense. It is literally, the image of a humid thing when shrunken by drought.

#q   KTS. The compressive sign united to the final sign, constitutes a root whence develop naturally, all ideas of term, limit, extremity, goal, summit, finish, cessation.

#q   and  #cq   (intens.) That which cuts, limits, terminates, finishes a thing; that which is extreme, final, without anything beyond: action of cutting, cutting off, amputating, etc. See  #Wq

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally to shear, to cut with scissors; figuratively to follow the tracks of someone, to continue a movement; to narrate a thing, etc.

qq   KK. Root not used in Hebrew. It is, in the Chaldaic  qWq  , the name given to the pelican; in the Arabic (arabic font) it is onomatopoetic and describes the clucking of chickens.

rq   KR. The compressive sign united to that of movement proper, constitutes a root which develops the idea of that which is incisive, penetrating, firm, straight; that which engraves or which serves to engrave; every kind of engraving, character, or sign fitting to preserve the memory of things.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents the same radical sense as the Hebrew, but with a certain difference in its developments. As verb, (arabic font) signifies to fix in some place, on some thing; to stop there, to remember it, to make an act of commemoration; to designate, to avow.

rq   From the idea of character and writing contained in this root, has come that of reading, and from reading, that of every oratorical discourse spoken aloud; thence the divers expressions of crying out, exclaiming, speaking, proclaiming, reading, naming, designating a thing by name, by expedient sign; to convoke, evoke, etc.

In making abstraction of the sign or character, and seeing only the cause which marks it, or the effect which follows it, one finds the idea of course, contingency, concatenation; thence, that of the course of events, fate of occurrence; action of happening, occurring, hastening, arriving, etc.

rWq  ,  rAq  or  ryq  The idea of incision has brought forth that of cutting in; thence, the idea of well, fountain, ditch, trap, snare, abyss; that which is incisive, penetrating, firm, causes a sensation which recalls that of cold: thence with the idea of coldness, that which can shield, as a walled enclosure, grotto, tower; by extension, a city.

vq   KSH. Every idea of twisting, twining, difficulty (Toute idée d'entortillement, d'embrouillement, de difficulté) ; that which is mixed, hardened, tightened, compact inextricable.

vq   and  vvq  (intens.) State of being twisted, twined, heavy, hardened (L'état d'être entortillé, embrouillé, pesant, endurci) ; action of clearing up, seeking to know, scrutinizing, exploring, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) offers in general, the same ideas; it is, in a restricted sense, to clean, rub, sweep, etc. The word (arabic font), a bow, is derived from the Arabic (arabic font) which signifies a curvature; but the Arabic word itself is attached to the Hebraic root.

tq   KTH. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) or (arabic font) develops in general, every idea of attraction, extraction, agglomeration.

 

r

 

r   . This character as consonant, belongs to the lingual sound. As symbolic image, it represents the head of man, his determining movement, his progress. According to Boehme the letter R draws its origin from the igneous faculty of nature. It is the emblem of fire. This man, who, without any learning, has often written in a manner astonishing to the wisest, assures in his book of the Triple Life of Man, that each inflection, vocal or consonantal, is a particular form of central nature. “Although speech varies them by transposition, nevertheless each letter has an origin at the centre of nature. This origin is wonderful and the senses can grasp it only by the light of the intelligence.”

As grammatical sign, the character  r  is, in the Hebraic tongue, the sign of all movement proper, good or bad. It is an original and frequentative sign, image of the renewal of things, as to their movement.

Its arithmetical number is 200.

ar   RA. The sign of movement proper united to that of power, forms a root characterized hieroglyphically by the geometric radius; that is to say, by that kind of straight line which departing from the centre converges at any point whatsoever of the circumference: it is, in a very restricted sense, a streak, in a broader sense, a ray and metaphorically, the visual ray, visibility.

The Arabic (arabic font) presents exactly the same radical sense as the Hebrew. The developments of this root, which are very numerous in the Arabic idiom, all have reference, in general, in (arabic font), (arabic font), (arabic font) etc., to the action of seeing, or to the state of being seen.

har   Action of seeing, fixing the eyes upon an object, beholding, considering; sight, vision, aspect of a thing.

yar   A mirror: figuratively, an observation, examination.

taAr   (comp.) Prophetic vision; spectacle; admirable thing.

var   (comp.) The head. See  vr

br   RB. The sign of movement proper, united to that of interior activity, or by contraction with the root  ba  , image of all fructification, constitutes a root whence are developed all ideas of multiplication, augmentation, growth, grandeur: it is a kind of movement toward propagation, physically as well as morally.

The Arabic (arabic font) does not differ from the Hebrew. It is, in general, that which dominates, augments, grows, usurps, possesses, gathers together, governs, etc.

br   and  bbr  (intens.) That which is large, broad, increased, whether in number or in volume; augmented, multiplied; that which is expressed by the adverbial relations, much, more, still more, many; ideas of multitude, number, quantity; strength or power which is drawn from number, etc.

bWr   (comp.) Action of being carried in a mass, of making an uproar raising a quarrel, a dispute.

gr   RG. Every kind of movement in the organs: emotion, commotion, disorganization.

The Arabic (arabic font) offers the same sense as the Hebrew. It is the action of agitating, stirring; talking with familiarity.

dr   RD. The sign of movement proper united to the sign of elementary abundance, or by contraction with the root  da  , image of every emanation, produces a root whose object is to describe every kind of indefinite movement, as that of a wheel.

The Arabic (arabic font) holds to the Hebrew in its radical sense, although the accessory ideas which emanate differ somewhat. It is, in general, a repeated movement which turns to itself. In particular, it is the action of returning, replying, restoring, etc.

dr   or  ddr  (intens.) That which spreads out, unfolds, occupies space, takes possession of a thing, by effect of a movement which is propagated circularly: a wheel, a

sphere, a veil.

dWr   Action of moving with firmness, either for ascending, or descending; action of persevering in one's will: the domination which is the natural bent of steadfastness and strength of soul.

hr   REH. Root analogous to the root  ar  whose  effect it increases.

hhr   Action of dazzling, fascinating the eyes; of troubling.

The Arabic (arabic font) departs from the radical sense of the Hebrew, and develops only the accessory idea of weakness which follows physical or moral dizziness.

bhr   (comp.) Every idea of magnitude, grandeur, force. See  br

jhr   (comp.) A course. See  jr

Wr   ROU. Root analogous to the root  ar  , but which, taking a more material expression, instead of characterizing a luminous ray, characterizes often a stream of water, the channel of a river, a brook: thence,

hWr   Action of watering, drinking, drenching, etc. See  yr

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes literally the action of considering the consequences, reflecting before doing a thing. The compound (arabic font) expresses a long, mature deliberation.

bWr   (comp.) Tumult. See  br

dWr   (comp.) Strength of the soul. See  dr

xWr   (comp.) Movement of the air, the breath. See  xr

~Wr   (comp.) Action of rising in being dilated, of filling space. See  ~r

[Wr   (comp.) Material movement, evil and disordered. See  [r

@Wr   (comp.) Action of being shaken by a sudden movement. See  @r

#Wr   (comp.) Action of moving in skimming the ground, of running. See  #r

vWr   (comp.) Action of impoverishing, making poor, being needy, of returning to the principle of nature. See  vr

zr   RZ. Every idea of exhaustion, material annihilation, extreme thinness: that which becomes indiscernible.

zr   In a figurative sense, the secret of the initiates.

The Arabic (arabic font) designates, in general, that which is secret, mysterious, concealed. It is an inner movement, a dull murmur.

xr   RH. In the same manner as the roots  ar  and  hr  , considered as rays of the elementary circle, are related to light and fire; in the same manner, as the root  Wr  is related to water, thus we see their analogue  xr  being related to air and depicting all its effects: we shall see further on  yr  and  [r  , related equally, the one to ether and the other to terrestrial matter.

The Arabic (arabic font) holds to the same radical sense as the Hebrew, as can be seen in a great number of its derivatives: such as (arabic font), which mean the same as the Hebraic analogues; but (arabic font) is still in the Arabic idiom, an onomatopoetic root which depicts the effort of wind upon a thing, and which characterizes, metaphorically, that which weakens, diminishes. (arabic font), designates, to flow in torrents, to fall in a mass, in speaking of water.

xWr   Every idea of expansion and serial dilation: wind, breath, soul, spirit: that which moves, stirs, animates, inspires, transports.

xyr   Every kind of odour. See  Wr

bxr   (comp.) Every kind of distention, inflation. See  br

~xr   (comp. ) That which is soft, faint, calm as air; a long, drawn breath. Figuratively, tenderness, compassion, mercy.

@xr   (comp.) That which is moved, stirred by an expansive, vital movement; to brood over, to cherish.

#xr   (comp.) Every kind of ablution.

qxr   (comp.) That which recedes, goes far away. vanishes in air.

vxr   (comp.) That which allows the air which it contains to escape by boiling, by fermentation.

jr   RT. This root, in which the sign of movement proper is limited by that of resistance, characterizes a directed course; accompanied or turned by a dike, an embankment, etc. It is literally a conduit, canal, promenade.

The Arabic (arabic font) has not preserved the radical sense of the Hebrew; but in being attached to one of its developments, that of a promenade, this root has designated a confused crowd, a tumultuous movement. The Chaldaic   jjr  has followed the same idea as the Arabic (arabic font), and has rendered it even stronger in expressing a sort of shuddering, of terror.

yr   RI. Root analogous to the roots  ar  ,  hr  ,  Wr  ,  xr  ; but more particularly applied to ethereal, fragrant radiations.

yr   Effluvium; a fluidic, ethereal, spirituous emanation; a fragrant exhalation. In a restricted sense, a stream.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally the lung.

byr   (comp.) A sympathetic, electrifying commotion given to a crowd: literally, a tumult, an insurrection.

xyr   (comp. ) An aroma, a fragrant spirit, perfume: figuratively, fame.

[yr   ( comp. ) The sound of metals striking together.

qyr   (comp.) Ethereal space, the void. See  qr

vyr   (comp.) Original manifestation: in whatever manner conceived. In a mean and restricted sense, poverty.

%r   RCH. Every idea of relaxation, indolence, dissolution, literally as well as figuratively.

%r   That which is thin, rare, soft, delicate, slender, frail, weak, infirm.

The Arabic (arabic font) has in general, the same ideas as the Hebrew. By its analogue (arabic font) is understood to make thin.

lr   RL. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

~r   RM The sign of movement proper considered in its abstract mode, or in its different radical modifications,  ar  ,  hr  ,  Wr  ,  xr  ,  yr  being here universalized by the collective sign  ~  , designates that sort of movement or action, by means of which any thing whatsoever, rising from the centre to one of the points of the circumference, traverses or fills an extent or place, which it has not occupied previously.

The Arabic (arabic font) has lost nearly all of the intellectual ideas developed by the Hebrew. This root reduced to the purely physical and material sense expresses in general, the action of establishing, restoring, repairing, etc.

~r   or  ~mr  (intens.) That which is borne upward, which rises, dilates, mounts, projects, shoots up, increases rapidly, follows a movement of progression and ascension.

~Wr   Action of rising by expanding, of filling space; action of being lifted up, in speaking of anything whatever; state of being in effervescence; the superior part of a thing; height, sublimity.

!r   RN. Every kind of noise, of sound which follows a commotion of the air. A chant, shout, clamour; the murmur of wind, water, fire; the clinking of metals, etc.

The Arabic (arabic font) has exactly the same sense. It is literally to resound, to make some sort of sound, to groan, etc.

sr   RS. Every idea of break, fracture; reducing into impalpable parts, in drops, like the dew; that which is submissive, reduced, subdued.

This primitive root is recognized in the four Arabic roots, (arabic font), (arabic font), (arabic font) and (arabic font) where its divers acceptations are divided. By (arabic font) is understood in general, to excavate the earth, to dig; by (arabic font), to water, to sprinkle: by (arabic font) to stratify, to arrange in layers; and by (arabic font) to crack, to break.

[r   RH. We have seen the movement principle, acting from the centre to the circumference, modified in turn, by light, fire, water, air, ethereal fluid, according to the roots  ar  ,  hr  ,  Wr  ,  xr  ,  yr  : now, here is this same movement departing from the root  Wr  and degenerating

more and more toward the material sense, to become in the root  [r  , the emblem of that which is terrestrial, obscure and evil. This is worthy of the closest attention.

[r   and  [[r  (intens.) That which is bent, bowed down; that which is brought together to be made compact; that which becomes fragile, brittle; that which breaks and is reduced to powder: physical and moral evil; misery, malignancy, misfortune, vice, perversity, disorder.

The Arabic (arabic font) has preserved none of the intellectual ideas developed by the Hebrew. The only physical idea that this root appears to express in the Arabic idiom, is that of inertia. The derivative roots (arabic font), (arabic font), etc., have reference, as in Hebrew, to the care of flocks and pastures.

[Wr   State of being perverted, evil, mischievous; action of following a material, false, disordered movement.

h[r   That which concerns earthly cares; the pains, anxieties, sorrows and afflictions which they involve: human society in general, and that of shepherds in particular: a shepherd, a leader of flocks; a king. The one who shares the same cares, a neighbour, relative, comrade.

W[r   Every disorder, rupture, infraction.

Y[r   Pasture, property, possession: that which concerns the state of shepherd, leader, king: pastoral.

b[r   (comp.) Hunger; state of being famished.

d[r   (comp.) Fear; state of being frightened.

l[r   (comp.) Horror, venom; state of being filled with horror, infected with venom.

~[r   (comp.) A disordered, universalized movement thunder, lightning.

#[r   Action of breaking, smashing, acting with fury.

v[r   (comp.) Action of shuddering, trembling, shivering.

@r   RPH. Every kind of mediation, reparation, recovery, redemption. It is the idea of a regenerating movement.

The Arabic (arabic font) holds to the same radical sense, but its developments are perceptibly altered. As verb, it is the action of being refreshed, of eating abundantly. (arabic font) is also an onomatopoetic root, which depicts the noise of a bird which beats its wings.

@r   Medicine, remedy; health, the action of healing.

@Wr   The sign of movement proper, united by contraction to the root  @W[  , forms an onomatopoeia which is applied to every rapid movement which dislocates, disunites, relaxes beyond measure: etc. See  @[

#r   RTZ. This root characterizes a sort of movement of vibration, recommencing and finishing; reptilian, which propagates in being divided: it is a dragging, painful movement.

#r   and  #cr  (intens.) That which is shaken into fragments, that which is broken, divided; a rupture, a piece.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally to stratify, to arrange in layers or in strata; by (arabic font) is understood to crush, to break in great pieces.

#Wr   From the idea of a divided piece, springs that of alliance, of friendship; from that of intermittent movement, springs the idea of concurrence: thence the action of being allied, of concurring.

qr   RK. Every idea of tenuity, rarity, expansion, giving way.

The Arabic (arabic font) has the same sense as the Hebrew.

qr   That which is attenuated, rarified; which gives way, physically as well as morally: in a figurative sense, time. See  qyr

rr   RR. Root not used in Hebrew nor in Arabic.

vr   RSH. The sign of movement proper, united to that of relative movement, constitutes a root which is hieroglyphically symbolized by a point at the middle of a circle: it is the centre unfolding the circumference: the fundamental principle.

var   Every acting principle, good or bad; a venomous poison, a very bitter, gall; that which is primary, initial; the origin, summit, top; the culminating point of all things; the head of man or of anything whatsoever; the leader of a people, a captain, a prince, a king. See  vWr  and  vyr

The Arabic (arabic font) holds evidently to the radical sense of the Hebrew  vr  , and the compound (arabic font) has the same acceptation as  var  . In the modern idiom, (arabic font) signifies to sprinkle.

tr   RTH. Every movement arrested, chained, retained.

The Arabic (arabic font) offers the same meaning. It is literally, the action of retarding.

tr   That which chains, coagulates, arrests; that which freezes the blood: a sudden terror, a dread.

 

v

 

v   SH. This character as consonant belongs to the sibilant sound, and depicts in an onomatopoetic manner, light movements, sounds durable and soft. As symbolic image it represents the part of the bow from which the arrow is shot. In Hebrew, it is the sign of relative duration and of the movement attached thereunto. It is derived from the vocal sound  y  become consonant by joining to its expression the respective significations of the consonants  z  and  s  . As prepositive relation, it constitutes a sort of pronominal article and is placed at the head of nouns and verbs, to communicate to them the double power that it possesses of movement and of conjunction.

Its arithmetical number is 300.

av   SHA. The sign of relative movement united to that of power, constitutes a root which is hieroglyphically characterized by the arc of the circle inscribed between two radii. The character  s  is designated by the arc deprived of its radius or arrow, and closed by its cord.

The character  z  is designated by the radius or arrow indicating the circumference. The portion of the circle represented by the root  av  , can be considered in movement or in repose; thence, the opposed ideas of tumult and of the calm which it develops.

The Arabic (arabic font) signifies literally to desire. As onomatopoetic root li denotes the sound of calling the flocks to the watering place.

hav   A whirlpool, a delirium; action of making irruption, tumult, fracas: profound tranquility; state of being empty, deserted, void; a gulf, etc.

aWv   That which is vain, empty; ruined, devasted; that which is tumultuous, tempestuous, whirling; vanity, insolence.

bav   (comp.) Action of drawing water. See  ba

lav   (comp.) Action of interrogating, asking. See  lv

~av   (comp.) Action of troubling, putting in disorder.

!av   (comp.) State of being calm.

@av   (comp.) To aspire, figuratively as well as literally. See  @a

rav   (comp.) That which tends toward consistency, solidity; that which remains; residue; remnant: in a restricted sense, the flesh. See  ra

bv   SHB. This root has two expressions according to its composition; if it is considered as composed of the sign of relative movement and of duration, joined to that of interior activity, it contains every idea of return toward a point of departure; if it is regarded as formed by the same sign united to that of the root  ba  , image of paternity, it designates the capture of a whole tribe, its captivity, its deportation outside its country: thence,

bv   The idea of any kind of reestablishment, of return to an original state, to a place from which one had set out; a restitution, a reformation: thence,

bv   Every state of captivity, of separation from one's country: a deportation; a capture.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes in general, that which tends from the centre to the circumference, increases, grows, unfolds itself, returns to its original state after having been restrained; develops its strength, etc. The primitive sense of the Hebraic root is recognized in the Arabic root although its developments may not be the same.

bWv   Action of coming back, of returning to its first state; of remaking what has been already made. Metaphorically, the action of growing old; that which is on the wane; an old man.

gv   SHG. The sign of relative movement united to the organic sign, indicates a movement of the organ deprived of intelligence, a covetous movement; the same sign joined by contraction to the root  ga  , symbol of organic development, characterizes every kind of increase. Thence,

gv   Blind desire, thoughtless inclination; figuratively, error, degeneration; action of growing, augmenting in number, volume, duration.

The Arabic (arabic font) preserves but little of the radical sense. It is, as onomatopoetic root the action of splitting a hard thing, of making upon it an incision, a scar; scratching, furrowing, etc.

dv   SHD. This root, composed of the sign of relative movement united to that of divisional abundance or by contraction with the root  da  , image of every emanation, characterizes productive nature in general, whose particular symbols are, a mammal and a field. Thence. the name of  ydv  , given to GOD, as principle of all good; Providence.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes that which acts with force, with energy, in good or in evil; that which overthrows the obstacles opposed to it ; that which shows itself strong and powerful.

dv   The effusion of the virtual faculties, Nature: the sign of abundance and fecundity; a mammal, a field. All physical property, fortune, the genius of the earth. A song of jubilee.

ddv   (intens.) Action of returning to primal, brutish nature; that is to say, of devastating, ravaging the production of art, labour and industry.

dWv   Every kind of devastation, or profanation; pillaging the fruits of nature.

hv   SHEH. Root analogous to the root  av

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes every tendency, every persevering movement toward an object: action of coveting, wishing, desiring, etc.

Wv   SHOU. Root analogous to the root  av  , but conceived principally under its relation of equilibrium, equality, parallel, similitude, fitness, proportion and measure of things.

The Ethiopic (ethiopic font) (shouy) signifies literally a man.

The Arabic (arabic font) characterizes the state of being struck with admiration.

hWv   State of being in equilibrium in all parts, as every portion of the circle; state of being equal, conformable, fitting, just, qualified for something; etc.

xWv   (comp.) That which is inclined, which leans toward any object.

jWv   (comp.) Action of following something in its contours, of bending, of doing the same. See  jv

%Wv   (comp.) Action of interring completely, covering wholly, burying.

~Wv   (comp.) Action of placing, of arranging one upon the other, in layers, as an onion.

[Wv   (comp.) Clamour, outcry; action of calling aloud. See  [v

@Wv   (comp.) Action of pressing hard, suffocating.

qWv   (comp.} Every amorous desire; every inclination.

rWv   (comp.) Action of being directed according to fixed laws, resting in equilibrium, in harmony; modulating the voice, singing, etc. Music, in the very broad sense that the ancients gave to this word. See  rv

vWv   (comp.) State of being in good humour, in harmony with one's self.

tWv   (comp.) Action of placing something. See  tv

zv   SHZ. Root not used in Hebrew. The Arabic (arabic font) indicates a dry, arid place.

xv   SHEH. Every kind of bodily effort to follow any direction; every effort of the mind to accomplish a duty, to acquire a virtue.

The Arabic (arabic font) holds evidently to the primitive sense of the Hebrew, but developing it from the purely material side; so that the effort indicated by the root  xv  , being turned toward egoism, characterizes only tenacity, avarice; desire to draw to one's self, monopolizing, etc. As onomatopoetic root (arabic font) depicts the noise made by any kind of fluid falling down from above. (